Heysham Arms

The Hissem-Montague Family

Montague Arms

Home | Gernet Forebears | In England | Heesom in America | Heysham in America | Other English Colonies | Montague Family | Other Family's | Links


Merchants of Lancaster & London

Here we continue the story of the Heysham family in Lancaster, and of their descendents who moved on to Liverpool, Carlisle, London, New York City, Philadelphia and Calcutta. They were mainly merchants, and sometimes shipowners and captains, but some were, by their turns, doctors, lawyers, soldiers and sailors as well. They comprise the most successful branch of the family, in terms of wealth, fame and accomplishment. This branch includes:

The wealthiest men - Robert Heysham of London & Robert Heysham Sayre of Bethlehem Steel
The greatest scientists - Dr. John Heysham of Carlisle & Dr. John Heysham Gibbon Jr. of Philadelphia
The greatest author - Bulwer Lytton
The most closely related to fame and infamy - Francis Bowes Sayre, son-in-law of President Wilson and boss of & apologist for Alger Hiss
The highest ranking generals - Major General John Gibbon of the Union Army & Major General Barrington Heysham of the Indian Army
The highest ranking naval officer - Captain Charles Augustus John Heysham, RN
The highest ranking theologian - The Reverend Francis Bowes Sayre Jr. of the National Cathedral
The highest ascending man - Woodrow Wilson Sayre, who climbed the north face of Mt. Everest
I used to think that the family of this period was divided into two very separate groups, the wealthy merchants and a less-well-off family of carpenters, flaxmen, and butchers. However, my recent review of parish records leads me to see them now as one family of sometimes divergent interests and occupations. This was reinforced when I began to research the backgrounds of the men who the Heysham women married. Very many of them, whether marrying into what I thought was the merchant family or not, were in the main men of trade and men of the sea.

Historical Timeline: Reign of Kings - House of Tudor
1509-1547 Henry VIII

Henry made England a great nation that could deal on an even level with France and the Empire. However, he broke with the Catholic Church over his divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, the aunt of the Empereor. He then established the Church of England with himself as its head.

Importantly, the north and west of England, being much more conservative than the cosmopolitan southeast, remained strongly Catholic in attitude and practice.

Henry eventually married, and made Queens of, six women. Catherine of Aragon (the mother of Queen Mary), Ann Boleyn (the mother of Queen Elizabeth), Jane Seymour (the mother of King Edward VI), Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard and Catherine Paar. The following rhyme tracks their individual fates: Divorced, Beheaded, Died. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived.


Population

During the Tudor period the population of England had grown dramatically. While documentation was so poor as to make real analysis difficult, most claim that the population doubled. Farming methods, however remained primitive and it became more difficult to feed the population when harvests were poor. As usual, the north, and more especially the northwest, faced the bleakest prospects during these times of dearth.

The first generation that can be discerned in the sadly truncated parish records of St. Mary's church in Lancaster were three brothers who all lived in the first half of the 16th century. They could have been the sons of,

(14) John Hesham (c1500) or
(14) William Heysham (c1520)
Both of these men are treated on the previous page, the "Heysham's of Lancaster." I've listed the men below as the sons of William only for difference since I've listed the Highfield branch as sons of John.

There were three adult male members of the family in generation (15) living in the town of Lancaster.

(15) Gyles Highsame (c1540)
(15) Edmund Heysam (c1540)
(15) William Hyshame (c1550)
As to their occupations, I'm assuming that like their distant ancestor, John Hesham of Lancaster, and their immediate descendents, they were merchants and tradesmen; notable men of the town who filled a municipal role as burgesses, aldermen, and, on occassion, mayor.

(15) Gyles Highsame (c1540)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520)

Senex. Possibly the brother of William Heysham of Highfield.

"Gyles Highsame senex . . . 20 December 1603" - from "Burials" Lancaster Parish Register, 1559-1690.
Senex meant not only "old man," but was also a sign of respect. In ancient Rome the title was awarded only to elderly men with families who had good standing in their village. It is inconsistenly applied in this register. It may mean no more than senior, implying the exitence of a son, Gyles Jr. There was a Gyles Highsame, the son of William, baptized on 20 January 1603.

A possible wife: "Anne Higsome . . . 13 Aprelle 1599," from Burials, Lancaster Parish Register. Note that William Heysham, in the next generation, was referred to in one citation as William Higson.

(15) Edmund Heysam (c1540)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520)

"Elizabeth Heysam relicta Edmundi Heysam . . . 16 January 1623," from Burials in the Lancaster Parish Register. Relicta means "left behind," that is, widow of. I don't have a burial notice for Edmund, meaning he probably died before 1599.

(15) William Hyshame (c1550)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520)

Senex. He died 11 years after Gyles, above. Since he cannot be the brother of William Heysham of Highfield there must have been another male Heysham at generation (14), perhaps William, who was his father.

William Heysham had at least two wives.

- "Vx William Hysame . . . 08 Aprill 1609," buried at St. Mary, Lancaster [vxor, vx = wife of].
- "William Hysam & Agnes Pye . . . 24 October 1609," married at St. Mary, Lancaster.
If these dates are correct, then none of the children below belong to Agnes. She was, instead, the wife of William's old age.
"Willm Hyshame senex [the old man] . . . 26 July 1614 "
- "Agnes vx Willm Hyshame . . . 18 July 1614," buried at St. Mary, Lancaster - from "Burials" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690
This was not William of Highfield, who died before April 1613. All of these citations are from "Burials" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690.

Historical Timeline: Reign of Kings
1547-1553 Edward VI

The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Henry’s third wife. He was a sickly boy who died young.



1553-1558 Mary

The elder sister of Edward VI, she was the daughter of Henry VII and Catherine of Aragon. Known as Bloody Mary, she made many martyrs in her attempt to re-establish the Catholic Church in England. She married King Philip of Spain, but they had no children. Calais, the last English possession in France, was lost during her reign. In this defeat England was finally forced to turn away from her dreams of an empire in Europe to that of a empire of the sea.


Parish Records

I had to find a place to share this sad note, "A pore girlle pished in the snow . . . 5 Februarie 1623" - from Burials in the Lancaster Parish Register. So poor no one even remembered her name.

Next are the children of Generation (16) in Lancaster. They could be the sons of any of the men in the previous generation, but I have chosen to identify Gyles Highsame for that role - mostly because it gives us a nice William-Gyles-William-Gyles rotation in the main family descent, each son honoring his father. Note that the family descent created for the Collins family, descendents of Emmeline, one of the Heysham's of India, identified a William Heysham at generation (15), a man who was living "between 1568 and 1600."

(16) Jenett Highsame (c1570), married Robert Chippindall
(16) Robert Hesham (c1570), no known children
(16) William Highsame (c1570), his children were,
(17) Anne Highsame (1600), died young
(17) Ellen Highsame (1601/2), married Christopher Crackenthropp
(17) Gyles Highsame (1603), his children were,
(18) Anne Heysham (1632), died young
(18) Margret Hyshame (1632), died young
(18) Gyles Hyshame (1635), his children were,
(19) Anne Heysham (1658), married Robert Carter
(19) Geyles Heesham (1660), his children were,
(20) Elizabeth Heysham (1691), married William Robinson Lytton
(20) Barbara Heysham (1695), married Henry Perrot
(20) Gyles Heysham (1698), died young
(19) Hester Hyshame (1662), married Hugh Barker
(19) Robert Heisham (1663), his children were,
(20) Jane Heysham (1708), died young
(20) Robert Heysham (1713), did not marry
(19) William Heesham (1667), his children were,
(20) Giles Heysham (1689), died young
(20) William Heysham (1691), no known children
(20) Elizabeth Heysham (1694), did not marry
(19) Elizabeth Heesham (1666/7), married Edmund Thornton
(18) John Heysham (c1635), his children were,
(19) Edward Heesham (c1660), his children were,
(20) John Heysham (1691), died young
(20) Grace Heysam (1693), died young
(20) Robert Heysam (1694), no known children
(20) William Heesham (1696), his children were,
(21) William Heysham (after 1715), his children were,
(22) Robert Heysham (c1745)
(21) Edward Heysham (1718), died young
(21) Thomas Heysham (1720), his children were,
(22) Edward Heysham (1748)
(22) William Heysham (1750)
(21) Judith Heysham (1723), died young
(21) Jane Heysham (1727), died young
(21) Jane Heysham (1732), did not marry
(20) Judith Hesham (1698), died young
(20) Anne Heysham (1700), married Matthew Rawlinson
(20) Edward Heysham Jr. (1702), no known children
(20) Richard Heysham (1703/4), his children were,
(21) Edward Heysham (1740), died young
(21) William Heysham (1742), died young
(21) Elizabeth Heysham (1743), died young
(21) Betty Heysham (1744), died young
(21) Ann & Dorothy Heysham (1746), both died young
(21) William Heysham (1752), no known children
(20) John Heysham (1706/7), no known children
(20) Thomas Heysham (1709), died young
(20) Gyles Heysham (1710), died young
(20) Christopher Heysham (1713), died young
(20) Grace Heysham (1717), died young
(20) Christopher Heysham (1718), his children were,
(21) Elizabeth Heysham (1740)
(20) Ellen Heysham (1720), died young
(20) James Heysham (1722), died young
(20) Joshua Heysham (1725), died young
(20) Elizabeth Heysham (1730), married James Barrow
(19) Jane Heighsam (1665), did not marry
(19) Ann Heesham (1667), married Thomas Machell
(19) Margritt Heesham (1668), married Lenard Jackson
(19) Ellen Heesham (1672), died young
(19) Robert Hesam (1673), his children were,
(20) Ellen Heysham (1701)
(20) Jonathan Hysham (1704)
(19) William Hesam (1674), his children were,
(20) Edward Heysham (1711), died young
(20) John Heysham (1712), died young
(20) Ann Heysham (1713), married William Goad
(20) Thomas Heysham (1715), died young
(20) Robert Heysham (1717), his children were,
(21) Robert Heysham Jr. (c1745)
(20) Richard Heysham (1719), no known children
(20) Thomas Heysham (1720), his children were,
(21) William Heysham (c1740)
(21) Elizabeth Heysham (c1745)
(20) William Heysham (1721), his children were,
(21) Thomas Heysham, died young
(21) Ann Heysham, died young
(21) William Postlethwait Heysham (1756), no known children
(21) Robert Heysham (1758), a numerous family
(21) Mary Heysham (1762), married Dr. John Hannum Gibbon
(21) Ann Heysham (1765), married Dr. Francis Bowes Sayre
(21) Jane Heysham, died young
(21) Christopher Heysham, died young
(20) Gyles Heysham (1722), his children were,
(21) Dr. John Heysham (1753), a numerous family
(21) William Heysham (1755), no known children
(21) Dorothy Heysham (1757), did not marry
(21) Mary Heysham (1762), married Thomas Milne
(21) Thomas Heysham (1764), no known children
(20) Christopher Heysham (1724/5), his children were,
(21) Jane Heysham (c1753), married James Machell
(20) Benjamin Heysham (1728), died young
(19) Mary Heisham (1676), died young
(19) Richard Hesam (1677), his children were,
(20) Elisabeth Heysham (1708), married Joseph Overend
(20) Grace Heysham (1710), died young
(20) John Heysham (1711), died young
(20) Thomas Heysham (1714), no known children
(20) Jane Heysham (1715), died young
(20) Robert Heysham (1718), died young
(20) Ann Heysham (1720), died young
(20) John Heysham (1721), died young
(20) Richard Heysham (1724), died young
(20) Grace Heysham (1725), died young
(19) Alice Heesham (1680), married William Walton
(19) Sarah Hesam (1681), married John Brown
(19) Mary Heighsome (1683), died young
(19) Grace Heighsome (1684), died young
(18) William Heisham (1637/8), no known children
(18) Ellen Heysham (1640), died young
(18) Anne Heesham (1642), did not marry
(17) William Highsame (1605), died young
(16) John Highsame (c1570), his children were,
(17) Anne Hyshame (c1599), married Thomas Halle
(17) Elline Heighshame (1599), married Edmund Tolminge
(17) Richard Heesham (c1599),
(18) John Heisham (1638), no known children
(18) Robert Heysham (1640), died young
(18) Elizabeth Heysham (1642), died young
(18) William Heisam (1644/5), died young
(18) Elisabeth Heesham (1646), died young
(18) George Heesham (1651), no known children
(17) Isbell Highame (1599), married Christofer Richardson
(17) George Highsame (1604), died young
(17) Edward Highsa (1605), died young
(17) Thomas Hisam (1610-twin), died young
(17) Alexander Hisam (1610-twin), died young
(17) William Heisham (1615), did not marry
(16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585), his children were,
(17) Margret Hyshame (1617) , died young
(17) Anne Hysham (1618-twin) , died young
(17) Margrett Hysham (1618-twin) , died young
(17) John Hishame (1620), died young
(17) Gylles Hyshame (1623) , died young
(17) William Hyshame (1626) , no known children
(17) Gylles Hyshame (1629) , died young
(16) Matilda Hyshame (c1585), liaison with John Johnson
Who was the father of generation 16? Below I still show it be be (15) William Heysham (c1530), of Highfield, but I no longer believe that. I think he, and his sons John, Nicholas and Oswald, made the move to Highfield and the neighboring villages, and never came back. They, instead, dwindled, and eventually their branch died out . . . maybe.

It begins to make more sense to me that the men described below derived from those Heyshams who remained in Lancaster, like the long line of their predecessors going back to (8) John de Hesham (c1270). They were tradesmen or merchants, town-dwellers, not yeoman farmers like those of Highfield.

Historical Timeline: Reign of Kings
1558-1603 Elizabeth I

Called “Gloriana.” She was one of the greatest monarchs of all time, and was so attested by even her great enemy, the Pope. She brought the realm good government, good coinage, and, most importantly, peace. Her rule created the basis for the country's great leap forward in economics, military power and artistic achievement.

After the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, the Spanish King, Philip, sent the great Armada to subdue England and bring the country back to the Catholic faith. This force was destroyed in a series of fleet actions and by bad weather. The populace was exhilerated by this achievement.

The first attempts were made to colonize America, but without success.

In 1570 the population of England and Wales is estimated to be about 4 million.

Below is the Lancaster quay, called St Georges, at one time the merchantile hub of the city. Today the warehouses have been converted into homes and shops. The Custom House, built in 1765, is the classical building in the center. At high tide the Lune river rises near the top of the quay wall - at full flood it sometimes tops it. During the 17th and 18th centuries Lancaster was a thriving port hosting more than a hundred ships, trading mainly with the West Indies. This was the business of the Heysham family.



(16) Jenett Highsame (c1570)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540)

She would have been a sister of Geoffrey, Robert, Geoffrey, or John.

"Robt Chippindall et Jenett Highsame 22 Auguste 1601" - from "Marriages" Lancaster Parish Register, 1559-1690
Jenett died not long after. A "Jennet Chippindall senex" was buried at St. Mary Lancaster on 27 December 1602. Another "Jennet Chippindall senex" was buried on 1 February 1606. One of those must have been our Jenett because "Robt Chippendall & Ann Patchett" married on 27 May 1609. Does the senex title given to Jenett infer that she was old, and therefore old when she married as well, or just that she was an adult when she died?

"Robt Chippendall senex" died and was buried at St. Mary Lancaster on 23 December 1623.

(16) Robert Hesham (c1570)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540)

A brother or cousin for (16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585), (16) William Highsame (c1570) and (16) Jenett Highsame (c1570). A Robtus Hashame married Alicia Greenfell on 13 May 1609 at St Marys, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. Another source, the IGI database, interprets Robert's surname as Haslam. I don't know of any Haslam's in Lancashire so I'll assume the 'l' was a mistransciption for 'h', Hasham.

The Robert Heysham below held a position of some delicacy for a rich employer.

"There are many similar fines of sales of land in Newton and Docker by Francis Tunstall, who appears to have sold off his manor into freeholds, and he finally sold Thurland Castle with the lands on the east side of the river Lune and £4 of rent in Newton and Docker on 19 August, 3 James I [1605], to George Pudsey and Robert Heysham, nominees of Nicholas Girlington. After the Commonwealth war John Girlington exercised some right as Lord of the Manor, but after that no more appears." [pg. 45]
What does "nominees" mean? A later quotation from the same source clarifies,
"Finally, on Monday after the feast of the Assumption, 3 James I [10 Aug. 1605], Francis Tunstall and Elizabeth his wife sold Thurland castle and manor and the rest of their landed property to George Pudsey and Robert Heysham, nominees of Nicholas Girlington. In this sale was included £4 in rent in various places which Newton and Docker are included." [pg. 92] - from "Remains, Historical and Literary, Connected with the Palatine Counties of Lancaster and Chester" by the Chetham Society.
So Pudsey and Heysham acted for Nicholas Girlington as his agents in the purchase of Thurland castle, below.

The oddity here is that it was Nicholas' father, John, who bought Thurland castle in 1605. Nicholas was only 13 years old in 1605 and did not inherit until 1612. I'll assume the references above got ahead of themselves, though at least one other source says that "The very large estates of the family [Tunstall] were sold before 1612 to Nicholas Girlington of Girlington." - from "Remains, Historical . . ." Robert Heysham was probably the agent of both John and Nicholas Girlington. Francis Tunstall had not sold all of his property. He and his wife retired to Scargill castle and estate.

"About 1605, Francis Tunstall sold Thurland Castle to John Girlington . . . Nicholas Girlington of Thurland Castle and son of John Girlington, was twenty years of age at the time of his father's death in the 10th year of James I [1612] . . . In 1619 Nicholas Girlington, heir to John, mortgaged Thurland castle. Sir John, son and heir of Nicholas, a knight and Major-general in the Civil War, surrendered the Castle to Parliamentary forces." - from "The Garlington Family"


The next citation is for a similar deal, if not the same, but cites John Girlington and clarifies Robert's position.
"William Carrington, on 18 July 3 Jame I [1605], purchased from Francis Tunstall of Scargill, co. York, esq., John Girlington of Thurland Castle, co. Lancs., esq., George Pudsey, gent, and Robert Hesham, yeoman, servant to the said John Girlington the yearly rent of his tenement (which was 14s. 4d.) for the sum of £50. 3s. 4d. and he bound himself to pay 1d. yearly and do suit and service twice a year at Tunstall." - from "Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archeological Society."

If any one there was a lawyer, it was Pudsey - who, by the way, was probably Girlington's cousin. Robert however, even as a yeoman, meaning he did not hold a degree, and servant, was esteemed enough by his employer to be given this responsibility. Moreover, he was important enough to get his name recorded, so he wasn't just a courier. I think we should also be careful not to over analize the word servant. Today it means butler or maid, but in 1605 I think it may have meant simply an employee, someone paid for his services.

The Girlingtons

(11) William de Gyrlington (1391)

Citizen and draper of York. He served in Parliament for York in 1440 and was Lord Mayor in 1441.

(12) Nicholas Girlington (1436)

Of York.

(13) Nycholas de Gerlington (1455)

Lord of Hackforth.

(14) Nicholas Girlington (1508)

He took part in the Pilgrimage of Grace, a rebellion in the north against Henry VIII's religious policies. The family were recusants for the rest of their history. Their arms were Argent, a chevron between three gadflies sable.

(15) Nicholas Girlington (c1535)

He married Dorothy, the daughter of Sir Robert Mennell and Mary Pudsey.

(16) John Girlington (1560)

Gent. Lord of Hackforth and Hutton Longvillers in Richmondshire. A Catholic recusant. He purchased Thurland castle and other properties of the Tunstall family in 1605. He died on 28 February 1612 in Thurland Castle, Tunstall, Lancashire.

"Inquisition taken at Lancaster 20 August, 10 James [1612], before Edward Rigbye, Esq., Escheator, after the death of John Girlington of Thurlande, Esq., by the oath of . . . and Nicholas Girlington, his son and next heir, is aged at the time of taking this Inquisition 20 years." - from "Lancashire Inquistions Returned Into the Chauncery of the Duchy of Lancashire"

(17) Nicholas Girlington (1593)

Nicholas purchased the manor of Arnforth from George Pudsey in 1625. He also obtained the manor of Caton from the Curwen's at about this time. He died on 7 February 1627.

(18) Sir John Girlington (1613)

One of the most prominent Royalists in Lancashire during the Civil War; Major General and Sheriff of Lancashire. He fought for Charles I during the Civil War. He was forced to surrender Thurland castle to Parliamentary forces in 1643 and was slain in battle in March 1644 at Melton Mobray.

(19) John Girlington Esq.

Admitted to Grays Inn on 13 June 1621 as the second son of John Girlington of Thurland Castle. Upon the Restoration the was made a "Knight of the Royal Oak." He died in 1706 and his estate, valued at 1000 pounds per annum, passed to the Welch family.


George Pudsey

The Pudsey family had a long history in county Durham going back to Hugh Pudsey, the Bishop of Durham circa 1154. This was when Thomas Becket was Archbishop of Canterbury. Our George Pudsey was probably baptized in 1563 in Gainford, Durham - from "The Antiquities of Gainford" by John Richard Walbran. Nicholas Girlngton and George Pudsey were jurors in an inquisition of 1586 into the estate of Anthony Caterick, deceased, of York.

Note that Giles Heysham, below, also had dealings with a Mr. Girlington, probably Sir John, the son of Nicholas. I think Robert fits here, with Geoffrey and William, all young men on the make. The Girlington's of Thurland also owned the old Curwen moiety of Caton, once held by Agnes Gernet and her husband John Curwen. She was the last of the Gernet's of Caton.

A Robert Heisham, of Nether Kellet, Lancashire had his will registered in the Diocesan Registry of Chester in Chester. If that was our Robert, then he was about 60 years old when he died. Nether Kellet is 5 miles northeast of Lancaster, in Bolton-le-Sands parish. However, I also have this man on the John Heesom page as a possible relative of the Yealand Conyers Heyshams and in the Heyshams of the Midlands page as a possible minister of the church of Weuerham.

(16) William Highsame (c1570)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540)

Based on the dates of his children's birth, William was born circa 1570. According to the biography of Robert Heysham, M.P., his great-grandfather [William] settled in Lancaster, implying that he was not born there. This was based, I believe, on the genealogy submitted by William Heysham of Greenwich in support of his request for a coat-of-arms for the family, see below. In the Heysham Pedigree shown in the "Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica", William Heysham was simply "of the town of Lancaster."

Where might William have been born? I am inclined to think that it must have been somewhere in Lancashire. Once a man moved out of this relatively poor county there would be little to pull him back. It would be more likely that he would continue to move east or south, towards bigger cities and greater opportunity. Within Lancashire, however, the great magnets were, in the south, Liverpool, and in the north, Lancaster.

I think it likely that William was a younger son, born to William Heysham on the Highfield estate in Halton. I don't have baptismal records to substantiate this, but it does make some sense of this family's rapid rise to ascribe it to the [educated perhaps?] son of an already well-to-do man. We can even imagine that his father might have set him up in trade . . . or at least sent him off with his blessing and twenty marks in his pocket. I'm further assuming, based on their concurrent rise in society, that William and Geoffrey, above, were brothers.

Contrarily, we may be placing too much emphasis on the phrase "settled in Lancaster." The latter day members of the family may have simply been making a surmise. After all, they did not know who William's parents were and where they came from.

One last point to substantiate the connection between William and Highfield is (15) Jane Heysham (c1538), who would, in this scenario, be William's aunt. Jane, the daughter of a "Heisham of Highfield," married Thomas Harrison of Adcliffe. She was noted to be "one of the same family as Robert Heysham [William's great-grandson], M.P. for Lancaster, 1701-14." - from "Time-Honored Lancaster, Historic Notes on the Ancient Borough of Lancaster." If that's too vague, then note that Jane's great-grandaughter, Mary Harrison, married Sir William Lytton, lord of Knebworth. This began a connection between the Heysham and Lytton families which included the marriage of William's great-great-grandaughter, Elizabeth, to William Robinson Lytton, the heir of the Knebworth fortune. None of this "proves" anything, but it certainly makes it most likely that the Highfield and Lancaster families were closely linked.

This was the Elizabethan era, a transitional time in which a small, insular nation, whose chief form of income was the sale of raw wool, transformed itself into a dynamic trading empire with a global reach. The lives of individuals were transformed as yeoman farmers and urban craftsmen took the plunge and became merchants and ship-owners. William's career seems to have mirrored this nation-wide phenomenon and laid the foundation for this branch of the family's spectacular rise in fortunes.

William must have married in about 1599 or 1600, his first wife having children in 1600, 1602 and 1603. A William Heysham, merchant of Lancaster, married in 1603/4. This would have been to Margrett, last name unknown. A child was born to William in 1605. At left is a woodcut of a typical 16th century wedding.

"Gyles Highsame senex," presumably William's father, died and was buried on 20 December 1603. William, taking over the family business, would have been 33 years old.

In 1606 there was a reference to "Johne pkinsone, Willm Highsame, Roberte Hadwen, Thomas Grinebanke & Gyles Curtese, Churchwardens. Richard Townsone, mister [minister]" of the Lancaster church [St. Mary's] - Lancaster Parish Register. Apparently William held this position for the entire year. In different places in this register William's surname was shown as Highsam, Highsame, Highson, Highsone and Higson. I'm assuming that churchwarden was a responsible position given to someone above the middling rank. Note that "Jeffray Hyshame," William's presumed brother, was a churchwarden in 1610.


The Churchwarden

The role of the churchwarden originated in the need of the parishioners to maintain the property they had given to their church. Such property included the sacramental vessels and vestments, as well as monetary or in-kind resources, like the tithes. It could also include homes and lands bequethed to the church. The churchwardens also became responsible for the condition, repair and enlargment of church buildings.

The duties of the churchwardens were not standardized, but evolved in relation to the needs of their community. They were an important part in the town's self-government and represented their community in a quasi-democratic fashion.

In the reign of Henry VIII the churchwardens began to be assigned civic duties. These included providing arms for soldiers and relief for maimed veterans. For the purposes of the Reformation, they performed the important duty of enforcing conformity to the new religious settlement. This included the requirement to attend church and prohibiting Roman Catholic rites. These types of duties, and the fines they collected for transgressions, transformed the churchwardens from being the agents of their community to its enforcers. - from "The World of Rural Dissenters" by Margaret Spufford.

On 22 December 1615 "Margrett vx Willm Hyshame" was buried - from "Burials, Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690." Note that this could not be the wife of William Sr., who died days after his wife, Agnes, died in 1614. Margrett would have been the mother of all of William's known children. I believe William remarried, this time to a Dorothy, last name unknown.

There is a letter from a William Heysham [Heyshame, Hyshame] of Lancaster, dated 1623, in the Kenyon family records and one from a William Hyshame of Lancaster to George Rigby written on 18 February 1623/4 about an agreement between William's uncle [?] and George's brother. George Rigby was the Clerk of the Peace and he had much correspondence with William's son, Giles, below. This may imply that William had a municipal position that required him to correspond officially with the Clerk of the Peace.
- George's brother was Joseph Rigby, who was also a Clerk of the Peace. George and Joseph had been given this job for life on 20 June 1615 upon the deaths of their father, Alexander Rigby, and elder brother, Alexander Jr.
-William's uncle cannot have been any of the generation (15) Heysham men above, nor of the Heysham's of Highfield, all having deceased by this time. Perhaps this was an uncle on Margrett's side of the family.

Historical Timeline: The Stuarts:
1603-1625 James I

King of Scotland and son of Mary Queen of Scots. He gained the English throne through a sister of King Henry VIII.



1605 The Gunpowder plot in which the Catholic Guy Fawkes attempted to blow-up the Houses of Parliament.

1609 Henry Hudson explored the Hudson and Delaware rivers for the Dutch East India Company. English Colonies in Virginia and Massachusetts established.

"Dorothie vx. Will: Heesham of Lanc: . . . 27 July 1648," buried at St. Mary, Lancaster. I believe this was William's second, or third, wife because I can't find any place else where she fits. She was not the mother of the children below.

William's children were,
(17) Anne Highsame (1600)
(17) Ellen Highsame (1601/2)
(17) Gyles Highsame (1603)
(17) William Highsame (1605)

(17) Anne Highsame (1600)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570)

"Anne Highsame fa. Wm" was christened on 3 November 1600 in Saint Mary, Lancaster - from the Lancashire Parish Register Society.

(17) Ellen Highsame (1601/2)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570)

"Ellen Highsame fa. Wm" was christened on 3 March 1601/2 in Saint Mary, Lancaster - from the Lancashire Parish Register Society. An Ellen Hyshame married Christopher Crackenthropp on 27 October 1629 in Saint Mary, Lancaster. He was probably a junior member of the Crackenthorpe family of Westmorland. "Christopher Crakenthorpe, who was probably a younger son of Christopher C. of Newbiggin, and younger brother of Richard C., the Loyalist . . . " - from "Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmoreland Antiquarian & Archæological Society." The name is also spelled Crakenthorp, Crackenthorpe, Crackanthorpe.

Note that Ellen's uncle, Geoffrey Heysham, was the mayor of Lancaster in 1629. This would have put her into an excellent position to marry "up."

Under the title page of "Crackenthorp of Newbiggin" there is a will which includes the line,

"To my neece Mary Crakanthrope, a little deske. My brother in law, my sister in law, my god-daughter Dorothy Thompson. My neece Margaret Harrison. My cozen Margaret Heysham. The residue to my sister Dorothy . . ." - from "Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archeological Society" by James Simpson, Richard Saul Ferguson, William Gershom Collingwood
Depending on who wrote the will, the niece Mary may be a daughter of Ellen and Christopher Crackenthorpe. All-in-all, I think this was a Crakanthorpe will, so that Margaret was a cousin through Ellen Hyshame Crakanthorpe.

"Mr. Christo. Crakanthorpe was buried at Newbiggen, 10 Feb. 1667-8." - from "Transactions . . ."

"Hellener Crakenthorpe of Newbiggin, widow of Christopher, made her will 30 Nov., 1667, and it was proved at Appleby by her daughter Barbara 8 April, 1668." - from "Transactions . . . "

The Crackenthorpe's of Crackenthorpe Hall

The Crackenthorpes had been "lords of the manor" of Crackenthorpe, on the river Eden, and Newbiggin in Westmorland since 5 Edward III, 1332, when the heiress Emma de Newbiggin was married to Robert de Crackenthorpe, who is supposed to have been a younger son of the Machells of Crackenthorpe near Appleby. In the 15th century they were in the employ of the Neville family. A Christopher Crackenthorpe succeeded to the manor in 18 Henry VIII and, in 1533, built the manor house, right. He had two sons, Henry, his heir, and John, who settled at Little Strickland. There was also a related Crackenthorpe family of Howgill.

(14) Henry Crackenthorpe (c1520)
(13) Christopher Crackenthorpe (c1490)

(15) Henry Crakanthorpe (c1556)
(13) Christopher Crackenthorpe (c1490) (14) Henry Crackenthorpe (c1520)

Of Newbiggin.

(16) Christopher Crackenthropp (1578)
(13) Christopher Crackenthorpe (c1490) (14) Henry Crackenthorpe (c1520) (15) Henry Crakanthorpe (c1550)

Christopher Crakanthorpe was christened on 13 June 1578 in Newbiggin By Appleby, Westmorland. Christopher Crackenthropp [Crakenthroppe] married Barbare Warde on 23 [14] February 1597 in Shap, [Morland], Westmorland. A "Xpofer Crakanthorpe, esq." of Newbiggin was buried 3 June 1623.


Shap is a village, and parish, just south of Little Strickland. Morland is just northeast of Little Strickland. Crackenthorpe is due east with Newbiggen to the north of it.

(17) Christopher Crackenthroppe (1598)
(13) Christopher Crackenthorpe (c1490) (14) Henry Crackenthorpe (c1520) (15) Henry Crakanthorpe (c1550) (16) Christopher Crackenthropp (1578)

A younger son, he was christened on 13 February 1598 in Shap, Westmorland. Christopher Crackenthropp married Ellen Hyshame on 27 October 1629 in Saint Mary, Lancaster.


Arms: Or, a chevron betweeen three mullets pierced azure; The Crest; on a wreath Or and Azure, a holly tree sprig or bush proper. By the way, Mr. Crackenthorp is a character in the novel, "Silas Marner."


The Giles Heysham Line

What holds the Giles Heysham line of the family together is the coat of arms displayed at the top of this document. As you will read below, it was granted in 1723 to William Heysham, the grandson of Giles. The coat of arms was approved for all descendents of (17) Giles Heysham, so I’ve grouped anyone who uses the arms together as part of his family.

(17) Gyles Highsame (1603)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570)

Gentleman, of Lancaster. "Gyles Highsame f. Wm." was baptized on 20 January 1603 - from the Lancashire Parish Register Society. The LDS database has a Gyles Highsame, the son of William Highsame who was christened on 20 January 1604 in St. Mary’s, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. Phonetically these names are too similiar to ignore (also makes his father’s marriage date, above, work better). The difference between 1603 and 1604 is most likely nothing more than the use of the old Julian calendar vs. the corrected Gregorian one.

Historical Timeline: The Stuarts:
1625-1649 Charles I

Religious conflicts accelerated. Charles was an ineffective King, stubborn when he should be conciliatory, irresolute when he should be strong. The English Civil War and defeat of the King's forces.

The Virginia colony was loyal to the King, but a fleet loyal to Parliament forced it to acquiesce.

1645 Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentary troops defeated King Charles' army at the battle of Naseby.

A Gyles Heysham married Anne Occleshawe on 19 May 1629 in Ormsrick, Lancashire. This is well south of Lancaster, near Liverpool. However, note below that Gyles was noted as "of Hulton," "of Euxton" and "of Preston" at various times. These villages are all in the south. I've begun to suspect that Gyles may have relocated to the region for a time, pulled there by his municipal duties and his allegiances to the Rigby family, who had their seat in Hulton.

There was a "Heesom, Anne, of Lancaster, A[mounderness] . . . Admon, 1666" in "A List of the Lancashire Wills Proved Within the Archdeaconry of Richmond" by Henry Fishwick. Just below this citation was one for a Giles Heesom of Lancaster, dated 1664 which may match (17) Gyles Highsame. I'm assuming this indicates some relationship, though this could be a daughter vice wife.

Our Gyles probably did marry around 1630, but I believe it was to a Jane Baley, who we'll discuss below. Note that Gile's's cousin, Geoffrey Heysham, was the mayor of Lancaster in 1629. How did this affect his marriage prospects?

Giles' life spanned the period from the assension of King James I, through the English Civil War and beheading of King Charles, the reign of the Puritans under Oliver Cromwell, to the restoration of the Kings with Charles II. It would have taken a wiley man to prosper in those ever-changing times, which Giles clearly did. At left is the dress of a typical 17th century gentleman. The level of "foppery" indicates this was during a royalist period. In the 1630's Giles probably dressed in such a fashion, but as Puritan forces gained power, and especially after Parliamentary forces took Lancaster in 1643, he probably followed more sober trends.

The following is a deed dated 11 March 1628/9.

"F35d (i) Sir Raphe Asheton of Whalley, his wife Dame Elianor, & his son and heir, Raphe, (ii) Roberte Mawdesley of Wigan, gent & Gyles Heesham of Hulton, yeoman, (iii) Alexander Rigbye of Middleton in Amounderness, esq, John Hey of Hulton, yeoman, Adam Morte of Tildesley, gent., & his son and heir, Thomas; Henry Tonge of Hulton, Richard Bulloughe of Hulton, Arthur Crompton of Whalley & William Rothwell of Hulton, yeomen, & James Marsh of Hulton, carpenter (iv) Alexander Thompson of Langtree, gent. & Robert Bamber of Preston, yeoman. -- Little Hulton, Worsley & Tildesley 11 March 1628/9" - from Deeds of Bargain and Sale, Lancashire Courts of Quarter Sessions in the Lancashire Record Office.

I've drawn the following correspondence of the Kenyon family of Peel Hall, Little Hulton, Lancashire from the UK Archives. There are ten letters from Giles Heysham (also referred to as Heyshame or Hyshame) of Lancaster, and in one case of Preston, dated from 1629-1643, plus one other anomolous outlier from the year 1679. The latter may be from Giles Heysham Jr., below. There are also two others, undated, from a source known only as Heysham. Other correspondence from Giles out of the Kenyon family records include:
- 17 March 1628, Surrender to lead to a common recovery of property in Little Hulton, Tyldesley and Worsley between Thomas Piggot of Boothes, gent, Gyles Ayneworth of Farnworth, yeoman and Thomas Smyth of Little Hulton, chapman and Robert Mawdesley of Wigan, gent and Gyles Heysham of Hulton, yeoman. Witnesses: Richard Whitehead, Scowcroft Towneley, John Rothwell [Hulton is near Manchester, in southern Lancashire]
- 20 May 1629, correspondence addressed to George Rigby at Wigan, Omskirk, Preston and Peel, "Geyles Heysham, Preston - His uncle and his eldest son drowned at Lancaster ["John Hyshame filius Galfridi maioris sepult" was buried on 27 May 1629, just before his 9th birthday, however the mayor doesn't seem to have deceased until 1633. Could his have been an uncle on his mother's side?], promises to be at Deane church, the high sheriff of Cheshire [Sir Uriah Leigh of Adlington, or his son, Thomas] arrived at Preston." Geyles may have written this letter from Preston because that's were much of the law enforcement "business" was conducted in Lancashire county. The uncles I currently show for Giles, Geoffrey and Robert, died in 1633 and 1627, respectively.
- 8 February 1629/30, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heysham - Sessions business."









The Rigby & Kenyon Family

The Rigby's of Little Hulton were, in effect, hereditary Clerks of the Peace for Lancashire between 1580 and 1663. The Clerk of the Peace was one of the principal law officers in the county, and a lucrative position. They heard and determined felonies and trespass done against the Peace. Their office was in Preston, except during the Assizes when they met at Lancaster. Little Hulton was a village in the parish of Deane, about four miles from Bolton. It was a center of Lancastrian Puritanism.

There had been a long-running dispute between the two branches of the Rigby family since the early 17th century over the possession of the clerkship of the peace.

The Rigby Family of Layton Hall and Burgh

They had been settled in Layton since 1592 and were active Royalists in the 1640's. They would later make their fortune as merchant drapers in London and as merchants and colonial officers in the West Indies. Burgh is in the Yarrow river valley, a submanor under Duxbury.

(14) Unknown Rigby (c1510)

The father of Edward and Roger Rigby, founders of the two branches of the Rigby family.

(15) Edward Rigby (c1540)

Of Burgh in Duxbury, the Clerk of Assize. His brother was Roger Rigby, of Blackleyhurst in Winstanley, the clerk of the peace in 1590 - from "Remains, Historical . . ." The clerk of the assize was an officer of the court, an assistant to the judge. He ran the circuit court and issued warrants and pardons. In some circumstances he appears to have supplemented the judge in calling and questioning witnesses.

(16) Edward Rigby (c1560)
(15) Edward Rigby (c1540)

Of Burgh. Edward [Rigbie, Rigbye] was a lawyer, of Gray's Inn, the King's Escheator for the Inquisition on the death of John Heysham, of Highfield, in 1613 and of his son, Richard Heysham, in 1622. A cousin of (16) Alexander Rigbie, circa 1596.

(17) Alexander Rigby (1590)
(15) Edward Rigby (c1540) (16) Edward Rigby (c1560)

Of Burgh. Grey's Inn: 28 January 1606 - "Alexander Rigby, gent., son and heir apparent of Edward Rigby, of Brough [co. Leicester {sic}]." 18 August 1607 - "Alexander, son and heir of Edward Rigbie of the Burgh [Burghe, Bourgh], esq." - from UK Archives. He was a deputy lieutenant, JP and a Derby household officer. He married Catherine, the daughter of Sir Edward Brabazon, knight. He had sons, Edward (c1610) and Thomas (c1612), who was vicar of Poulton. Alexander died on 20 April 1612.

(18) Edward Rigby (1610)
(15) Edward Rigby (c1540) (16) Edward Rigby (c1560) (17) Alexander Rigby (1590)

Of Burgh. 25 February 1647 - "Edward Rigby, of Graye's Inn, junior, Son of Alexander Rigby Esquire, for the Office of Clerk of the Crown in the County of Lancaster during his Life, being void by the Delinquency of Alexander Rigby, of Burgh, Esquire, was this Day read. - from "House of Commons Journal Volume 5: 25 February 1648" The Parliament instead gave the office to William Ashhurst.

His descendants included Alexander Rigby, of Layton Hall and Burgh, Cumberland married Anne, daughter of Thomas Birch of Birch Hall. His son was Sir Alexander Rigby of Layton (c1663-1717), near Liverpool, Lancashire, M.P. for Wigan.

The Rigby Family of Preston

They were active Parliamentarians in the 1640's.

(15) Roger Rigby (c1540)

Of Blackleyhurst [Blackley Hurst] in Winstanley, Wigan parish, Lancashire. The Clerk of the Peace, circa 1590. His brother was Edward of Burgh in Duxbury, the Clerk of Assize - from "Remains, Historical . . ." Referred to as "comers to church, not no communicants, and their wives very little better than recusants." - from "History of the Church and Manor of Wigan."

(16) Alexander Rigby (c1570)
(15) Roger Rigby (c1540)

Of Ditton [south of Preston], of Halton. Deputy Clerk of the Peace during his father's life. J.P.

24 January 1611/2 - "Surrender: Alexander son and heir of Roger Rigbye, gentleman, to the King - the office of clerk of the peace."
25 January 1611/2 - "James I to Alexander Rigbie of Graies Inne, gentleman - the office of clerk of the peace for Lancashire for the lives of Alexander Rigby and Alexander his son - recites previous grants to Roger Rigby dated 10 May 1589 and 11 Feb. 1607/8." - Kenyon of Peel, UK Archives
1611/2 - "Note of money disbursed by Alexander Rigby in obtaining his patent of the office of clerk of peace and a draft surrender by Roger Rigbye and Alexander Rigby of Ditton."
14 February 1614/5 - Bill of Complaint to the Duchy Chancellor. "Alexander Rigbye versus Roger Rigbye - refers to Alexander Rigbye acting as deputy clerk of the peace for twenty years, receiving all profits over the sum of £20 a year. Attached is a copy of a Duchy order for the appearance of Roger Rigbye to answer the plaintiff on 28 Nov. 1610, also a copy of a warrant for the arrest of Roger Rigbye for contempt of court." - from UK Archives.
Alexander had three sons, Alexander Jr., Joseph, and George.

(17) Colonel Alexander Rigby (c1600)
(15) Roger Rigby (c1540) (16) Alexander Rigby (c1570)

Clerk of the Peace. Colonel of Parliamentary forces and Deputy Lieutenant of the district. His forces were well trained and on one occasion his force of 500 foot soldier and three troop of horse overwhelmed a Royalist force of 1,600 troops, mainly mounted, under Colonel Hudleston. He besieged Lathom House, left, the home and stronghold of the Earl of Derby, which failed when Prince Rupert brought up an army of 10,000 against him. He also beseiged, and took, Thurland castle, which he then demolished. He was at the epic battle of Marston Moor, under the command of Cromwell. He was a member of the Parliament's Committee of the Army.

(17) Joseph Rigby (c1600)
(15) Roger Rigby (c1540) (16) Alexander Rigby (c1570)

Grey's Inn: 2 February 1617/8 - Joseph Rigby, son of Alexander R., of Halton, co. Lancaster, Esq." Clerk of the Peace after his brother, George. Upon his death the office went to his nephew-in-law, Rober Kenyon, on 31 July 1660.

(17) George Rigby (c1600)
(15) Roger Rigby (c1540) (16) Alexander Rigby (c1570)

20 June 1615 - "James I to George, son of Alexander Rigbie of Graies Inne - the office of clerk of the peace, for the lives of George Rigby and Joseph his brother, after the deaths of Alexander Rigby, and Alexander his eldest son." - Kenyon of Peel, UK Archives. George married Beatrice, the eldest daughter of William Hulton, Esq., of Hulton Park, and inherited Peel Hall, right. He rebuilt the hall in 1634.

Grey's Inn: 2 February 1617/8 - George Rigby, son of Alexander R., of Halton, co. Lancaster, Esq." Clerk of the Peace from 1622 to 1644. His brothers were Colonel Alexander Rigby and Joseph.

(18) Alice Rigby (1630)
(15) Roger Rigby (c1540) (16) Alexander Rigby (c1570) (17)George Rigby (c1600)

On 17 June 1657 "Alice, daughter of George Rigby, of Peel Hall, near Bolton, clerk of the peace for the county palatine (1657)" married Roger Kenyon (1627-1693), gentleman, of Parkhead, in Whalley in Little Hulton. He was in addition a Royalist.

On the death of George Rigby, Roger Kenyon inherited Peel Hall. The Kenyon's were, in their turn, hereditary Clerks of the Peace for Lancashire until 1780. Roger became Governor of the Isle of Man, M.P. for Cliteroe, and receiver-general of the Duchy of Lancashire. Lloyd Kenyon, Lord Chief Justice, was created Baron Kenyon of Gredinton in 1788.


- 5 August 1630, Feoffment to lead to a common recovery of land and property in Hulton and Worsley called the Peel from George Rigby of Peel, Hulton, gent to John Foster of Lancaster and Gyles Heysham of Euxton. Witnesses: George Haworth, Peter Horwich, Scowcroft Townley, Ralphe Brabine [Euxton is near Chorley, in southern Lancashire]

Chorley

Chorley is on the river Yarrow, south of Preston. Euxton is 2 miles northwest of Chorley.

Agnes Hisham (c1537)

An Agnes Hisham of Chorley, Lancashire married Lawrence Standish in 1567.



- 4 March 1632/3, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heyshame, Lancaster - has delivered the proclamacion to Mr. Covell, hopes to hear of "my Mistress's good deliverie", and in respect of Lent men have given over catching fowl." Thomas Covell was mayor of Lancaster in 1606 and 1628 and Keeper of Lancaster Castle. It was he that put the Pendle Witches to death in 1612. His home, built in 1625 at 15 Castle Hill, is the oldest townhouse in Lancaster still standing. It is today the Judges Lodgings Musuem. Geoffrey Heysham succeeded Thomas as mayor in 1629.
- 28 May 1633, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heyshame, Lancaster - request for sessions order that the churchwardens and overseers of Lancaster (except Thomas Towneson) should provide for the poor."
- 26 October 1632, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heyshame, Lancaster - sending samphire in a barrel, has enquired after the spaniel which is 7 or 8 years old."

Def: Samphire - Samphire is an herb, also known as Sea Fennel. It is dedicated to the fisherman saint because it likes to grow on sea-cliffs. It may have been harvested around the village of Heysham though it is more abundant in the south. The whole plant is aromatic and has a powerful scent. The young leaves, if gathered in May, sprinkled with salt (after freeing them from stalks and flowers), boiled and covered with vinegar and spice, make one of the best pickles, on account of their aromatic taste. It was usually eaten in salads. Samphire gathering is referred to in "King Lear":
'Half-way down
Hangs one that gathers samphire; dreadful trade!'


- 12 November 1632, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heyshame, Lancaster - report on the trial between Chowe and Christofer Baron about a debt of 8s. 6d."
- 9 June 1637, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heyshame, Lancaster - Mr. Woods's living is mortgaged for £200, sessions business, outbreak of fire in Scotforth [a village south of Lancaster, later swallowed up in the expansion of the town]."
- 4 & 12 November 1638, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heyshame, Lancaster - Mr. Girlington and Drian Durton have not yet returned from Yorkshire." Probably Sir John Girlington of Thurland, the son and heir of Nicholas, mentioned above with Robert Heysham and George Pudsey.
- 18 November 1638, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heyshame, Lancaster - Brian Hurton [Drian Durton, above?] has promised to pay the money."
- 26 November 1638, Letter from: Giles Heysham to George Rigby, at Peel - Lancaster.--A friend and neigbour has come from Scotland with a hundred "weathers," not large, but "well coloured mutton." They cost him about 4l. 10s. a score, at Dumfries, and he was offered 7l. a score at Lancaster. Fragment of seal.

Def: Weathers - Male sheep are called billys and castrated male sheep are called weathers.

- 9 February 1638/9, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heyshame, Lancaster - Mr. Tounson promises to send of the best, and Geyles Heyshame "will procure me a rundlett."

Def: Rundlett - A cask or barrel. Small runlets contained between a pint and a quart and 3 or 4 gallons.

In 1640 Charles I had rashly dissolved Parliament. However, he still needed Parliament's authority to raise funds so he called a new election. In this election, in Wigan, "Egidius Heyshame, gen." voted for "Alex. Rigby and Jo. Standishe." - from "The History of Wigan" by David Sinclair.

The English Civil Wars

Over the centuries the English Parliament had grown in stature and its members, while conceding ultimate power to the King, expected to be consulted and respected. This system had worked well in the Tudor period and Elizabeth I, especially, had proved a master at stroking the ego's of these often proud men while getting her way in most things. However, problems loomed. The size of government had far outstripped the King's ability to pay for it out of his own funds. His need for Parlimanent's approval to raise new taxes put him under their control, but the implications of this relationship were not yet understood. In addition, the religious compromises of Elizabeth's period had begun to come apart and religious fundamentalism, of several varieties, was on the raise. In a period when "a single religion in a single state" was the only accepted alternative, conflict was inevitable.

James I came to the throne in this atmosphere an outsider with little support in Parliament. He was, moreover, a believer in the divine right of Kings and was not prepared to be opposed. His son, Charles I, shared his father's views and compounded his problems through arrogance, conceit and, ultimately, indecisiveness.

After many years of rangling over money, Charles decided it would be better to rule without Parliament and locked out its members. He drastically reduced the cost of government and, when even that was insufficient, trumped up charges against rich men in the kingdom, using their fines in lieu of taxation.

In 1640, however, Charles found himself in desperate need of money to raise an army to put down dissent amongst the Scots. He called a new Parliament, the so called "Short Parliament" because it sat for only three weeks, but it refused to raise any money until its old complaints were addressed. The King refused these demands and once again closed Parliament. Trying to fight the Scots with his own limited funds, his army was defeated.

His treasury drained, Charles was forced to recall Parliament and could not afford to dissolve it until they had granted him the necessary money. Parliament knew this and intended to use its power. This became known as the "Long Parliament," because, as events unfolded, it sat for some thirteen years. They sent the King's advisors to the Tower and passed bills destroying the framework of the King's prerogative government. But the leadership went too far and opinion in the Parliament began to go against them. In this atmosphere the King made a tactical error, attempting to arrest the five senior members of Parliament. The attempt failed and Parliament rallied against him. Charles fled and in 1642 officially raised his banner in opposition to Parliament, starting the Civil War.


The Civil War in Lancashire

The split in Lancashire mirrored that of the nation as a whole. In the north and west the Royalists held sway, under Lord Derby, and in the south and east the Parliamentarians were in control.

At the start of the war, Royalists controlled the main north-south route through the county, holding Warrington, Wigan, Preston and Lancaster. Parliament controlled Liverpool, Manchester and Bolton, though these places were only minor centres of population and trade at this time. In 1643 the Parliamentarians took Lancaster and defeated Royalist attempts to unseat them. At Lancaster the castle was fortified by the Parliamentarians with some 22 cannon taken from a Spanish ship which had run aground at Rossall Point. The Royalists later retook the town, but could not take the castle. Some 90 houses in the town were destroyed during the fighting. The Royalists were finally forced to retreat.

In 1644 Wigan and Warrington were taken by Parliament and Latham House was besieged. This fortified Manor House was held by the Countess of Derby and attacked by the Parliamentarian Colonel Rigby. The Royal Prince Rupert came to Lancashire and this raised the siege since Rigby was not strong enough to face Prince Rupert's forces. Rupert then went on to capture Bolton. His Royalist resurgence did not last long however. After Cromwell's victory at Marston Moor in Yorkshire, the Royalist Army had to evacuate the north of England.

In 1646 the King had been captured, but escaping he persuaded the Scots to change sides and brought a new army down from Scotland in 1648. This Scottish army advanced southwards through Lancashire, but were intercepted by units of Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentarian Army and heavily defeated at the battle of Preston. A further defeat followed at Warrington. Tyldesley, the Royalist leader, attempted to recapture Lancaster, but he was forced to give up after the Royalist defeat at Preston.

After Charles I was beheaded in 1649, his son, Charles II, declared himself King. In 1651 he invaded England with a Scottish and Royalist Army. He was proclaimed the new King in Lancaster. He was eventually defeated in the West midlands at Worcester and fled to the continent.

After the wars many castles were destroyed or made unusable by pulling down part of their walls. This was because it was feared that in the event of another uprising, they might be occupied by Royalist forces. Demolition did not happen to Lancaster castle, as this was kept garrisoned by Parliament, but smaller castles such as Greenhalgh Castle (Garstang) and Clitheroe's Norman Keep were partly destroyed.

By this time the Civil War had begun and, in 1643, Lancaster was in the hands of Parliament. Geyles revealed, or adopted, an adherence to the anti-royalists in the letter below. The Rigby's were staunchly anti-royalist.
- 8 October 1643, correspondence addressed to George Rigby of Peel, "Geyles Heysham, Lancaster - Sending scurvy grass from Cockerham, also "I am sorie to hear of Mrs. Katherin's death", and "Thurland Castle is delivered."

The next year a royalist army returned to retake the town. A large number of homes were destroyed in the fighting, but the castle could not be taken and the royalists were forced to withdraw. Did Geyles and his family flee during the fighting or was he a leader in the opposition, standing firm next to his Rigby allies?

Def: Scurvy Grass - Also known as spooonwort, this herb was greatly used on sea-voyages as a preventative of scurvey. It is stimulating, aperient, diuretic, antiscorbutic. The essential oil is of benefit in paralytic and rheumatic cases; scurvy-grass ale was a popular tonic drink.

Thurland Castle

The castle was built in the 14th century, with license to crenellate granted by Henry IV in 1402. All that survives of the original structure now, is the moat and some masonry from the North face of the South East range. From these remains, a tower can still be seen. The work carried out when the crenellation license was granted, was done by Sir Thomas Tunstall. An ogivall headed (pointed arch) doorway can still be seen in the building facing the court....apparently evidence that the building contains masonry from a building predating the 1402 work. In around 1605, the castle was sold to John Girlington by Thomas Tunstall.

"Thurland Castle near Tunstall - some ancient work - occupied by the Girlington family in the 1600's. Nicholas Girlington who died in Halifax Co. VA in 1773 left a signed paper in Halifax Court records showing a sketch of a wing of the castle. John Girlington and second wife Margaret Duckett were probably the last Girlington residents of Thurland castle. Now a private residence."
The castle was surrendered to the Parliamentary forces of Colonel Alexander Rigby in 1643. Note that Giles Heysham, above, displays a clear anti-Royalist tone. Alexander Rigby, of Peel, was a Parliamentary deputy-lieutenant, a Puritan member of Parliament for the village of Wigan and, I believe, George Rigby's brother. Note that the Girlingtons, see above, bought Thurland castle in about 1605. It was Sir John Girlington that surrendered the castle to Parliamentary forces.

The remains of the castle were built into a country residence in 1809 and again in 1829. The castle was then gutted by fire in 1876. From 1879 to 1885, Lancaster architects Paley and Austin were employed to rebuild and partially redesign the castle, and most of what is seen today is a result of their work. More recently, the castle has been split into private residences.

I believe the correspondence addressed to George Rigby and Roger Kenyon denoted that Giles' had a position in the local government of Lancaster which required a relationship with the Clerk of the Peace. I will assume, in part based on his rise to mayor in the 1650's, that he was an alderman, burgess, or bailiff.

In 1648 Charles I brought a new army into Lancashire from Scotland, advancing as far as Preston before being defeated. An attempt was made on Lancaster, but it was unsuccessful.

Historical Timeline: The Commonwealth Period:
1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell

After the King was beheaded, and after a tumultuous period of Parliamentary rule, the leading general of the Puritan cause, Cromwell, was made Lord Protector. He ruled England through Parliament, but his absoute power over the Army made him a virtual dictator.

1658-1659 Richard Cromwell

Richard lacked his father’s political skills and General Monk, one of the Civil War's great generals, engineered the restoration of the House of Stuart.

Gyles was the second juror mentioned, and perhaps the second most important man of substance, in the inquisition of 1650, below.

"The Commonwealth Church Survery, 1650, thus refers to the Church of Lancaster:--
Inquisition indented taken at Lancaster, in the County of Lancr ye xvijth day of June, in ye year of our Lord God, 1650, before Richard Shuttleworth, John Starkie, Thomas Whittingham, John Saurey, Jereiah Aspinwall, George Touluson, William West and Georg Pigot, Esqrs., by virtue of a Commission under ye Greate Seale of England to them others directed, bearing date ye Twentie ninth day of March last, for inquiring of ye Number, reall yearly value & situation of Churches & Chappells within ye said County, and now ye same is pvided of maintenance and preaching Ministers by ye Oathes of good and lawfull men of ye Hundred of Loynsdale [Lonsdale] in ye said County, viz., Thomas Westmore of Middleton, gen; Gyles Hysham of Lancaster, gen; (Edmund) Berwicke of Highfield, gen; . . .; who say upon their Oathes, That ye Parish Church of Lancaster, within ye said Hundred of Loinsdale and County of Lancaster, is a Viccaradge [sic] p'sentative by ye said George Touluson, And That ye parsonage or Rectory or Tythes of Corne and graine within most of ye said parish are impropriated to Sr Robert Bindlos, Baronet & his heires, & are farmed att ffive hundred and Tenn pounds p ann, or thereabouts. And ye said Jurors say That ye said parish of Lancaster doth containe within it ye severall Townships, Hamletts, or Villages of ye several distances from ye said parish Church hereafter following, viz. . . . " - from "Materials for the History of the Church of Lancaster" by William Oliver Roper
George Touluson, gentleman, who had been mayor of Lancaster in 1637, had the honor to present, was presentative of the church, the new vicar to the congregation. In this document the village of Heysham was also spelled as Hysham.

Giles was mentioned in Whitaker’s "Richmondshire" as a "Gent," and living in 1650 at Langton, on the northern bank of the Swale river. This is in Yorkshire, though not far from the Lancashire border. Perhaps this was a country retreat for a merchant of the city.

In 1650 Giles Heysham, gen. [gentleman], signed and sealed a petition that the people of Fulwood may be annexed to the parish church of Amoundernes, being nearer to them’ than Heysham - from Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society.

"Inquisition indented taken at Lancaster, in the county of Lancaster, ye xvijth day of June, in the year of our Lorde God 1650 . . . for inquirying of the number, and reall yearly value, and scituation of churches and chappells, within the said county, and how the same are p'vided of maintenance and preaching ministers, by the oathes of good and lawful men of the hundred of Loinsdale, in the said county, viz: Thomas Westmore, of Middleton, gen.; Gyles Heysham, of Lancaster, gen.; . . ." - from "The History and Antiquities of the Town of Lancaster" by Robert Simpson.

In 1651 the son of the beheaded Charles I, later to be Charles II, invaded the north with a Scottish and Royalist Army. He took Lancaster and was there proclaimed the new King of England, but his army was later defeated and he fled back to the continent to await the restoration.

On 1 February 1654 Francis Aynsonn & Elizabeth Carter, of the Towne of Lancaster, were married in the presence of Gyles Heysam [sic], gentleman, John Deyes & others before John Baileman [sic], maior. I believe this is our Gyles in the year before he became mayor of Lancaster. While I've confirmed that John Baleman was indeed the mayor of Lancaster at this time, I wonder if the others, including Gyles, were Aldermen? John Deyes of Lancaster died in 1664.

At right is a mayor of the period in Puritan dress.

"Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire" notes of another marriage that,

". . . the marriage took place on 5th February 1654-5 in the presence of Mr. Bennett, Mr. Altham, Mr. Heysam [sic] and others, before the mayor, John Baleman."
From the Lancaster Parish Register:
"Robtt Howtson, s. of Thomas Howtson of Lanc., & Ellinn Clark, d. of Roger Clark, [were married] In presence of Roger Clark, Gyles Heisam, Geo. Eskrigg, Before John Baleman, Maior 16 Apr 1655."
"John Baileman of Lancr gent," died on 27 June 1657.

According to the records of several marriages at which he officiated, Gyles was the "Right Worshipful Mayor" of Lancaster in about the years 1655-1656. He does not, however, show up on a list of Past Mayors of Lancaster in the book, "Time-Honored Lancaster." The book lists,

". . . 1654, Thomas Riparn; 1655, John Bateman [sic]; 1661, Henry Porter . . ."
Since a new mayor was elected each year this list is clearly incomplete and there is a hole where Gyles should fit in between Bateman and Porter. Note too that while Gyles wasn't listed, a Galfridus [latin for Geoffrey] de Heesham was, in 1629, see above.

In this period of a rising middle class, and a limited franchise, the office of Mayor would have been reserved for the most successful businessmen in the city and was perhaps rotated amongst them. The mayor was also a Justice of the Peace.

The Right Worshipful Mayor

The government of Lancaster is vested in a mayor, recorder, two bailiffs, seven aldermen, twelve capital burgesses, and twelve common council-men, assisted by a town clerk, two serjeants at mace, and subordinate officers. The mayor, who acts as coroner for the borough, and the bailiff of the brethren, are elected annually on the Thursday after October 18th, by the aldermen and capital burgesses, from their own bodies, and the bailiff of the commons, by the free burgesses, from the common council-men.

Note: Town administration was divided into "grades."
- Assistant [Junior, Inferior] Burgess. An elected office, chosen from amongst the ranks of landholders, who were the senior commoners of the town.
- Capital Burgess. An elected office, chosen from amongst the ranks of Assistant Burgesses. John Shakespeare, the bard's father, was a Capital Burgess.
- Alderman. An elected office, chosen from the ranks of the Capital Burgesses.
- Mayor. An elected office, chosen from amongst the ranks of Aldermen.

The mayor is a justice of the peace for the county, and he and the aldermen are justices of the peace within the borough, holding quarterly courts of session for all offences not capital; also a court of pleas every week, for the recovery of debts to any amount. A court for the hundred of Lonsdale is also held here, on the first Wednesday in every month, for the recovery of debts under 40s.

The following are references to Gyles as mayor of Lancaster:

"Married before Geyles Heysham maior [sic] of Lancaster. W. Tho: Corles James Curwen Wm Thorneton, Wm. Merscye [?] John Harrison and others on 01 Jan 1655 and 22 Jan 1655."
"M. The before named John Winder and Margaret Parkinson, before Geyles Heyshame, maior of Lancaster 01 Mar 1655."
"M. The before named Roger Wrennow and Elizabeth Sander, before Geyles Heyshame, maior of Lancaster 01 Mar 1655."
"M. The before named John Bradshawe and Margaret Hey, before Geyles Heyshame maior 01 Mar 1655."
"3 p. 12 M. The before mentioned Richard Saltas and Margaret Wales, before Geyles Heyshame maior 01 Mar 1655."
"24 Jun 1656. John Robinson & Elizabeth Tatham by Wm [sic] Heighsham, Maior of Lancaster." - from Marriages at the Church of St John the Baptist in the Parish of Tunstall, Lancashire. The Tatham's had been friends with the Heyshams of Highfield.
"M. John Horseforth and Mary Atwood [Publication on 3 p. 9A] [were married] before Geyles Heyshame maior of Lancaster 12 Apr 1656."
“John son of Thomas Astwicke of Halton and Jennet, daughter of Edward Marshall late of Nether Kellet deceased, were published for the intention of marriage 3 severall Lords dayes viz: the 13 Apr 1656, 20 Apr 1656, and 27 Apr 1656 within the parish church of Boulton and noe objection to the contrary And then were married the 03 May 1656 before Gyles Heysham Gent: Mayor of the Towne or Burrough of Lancaster and Justice of Peace within the said Burrough. Geyles Heysham, Mayor of Lancaster.”
"M. James Fox and Alice Bradley [Publication on this page] before Geyles Heyshame Jul 1656."
"M. John Parkinson and Elizabeth Robinson [Publication on 3 p. 10A] before Geyles Heyshame, maior of Lancaster 17 May 1656."
"M. John Bell and Anne Blackburne [Publication on 3 p. 15A] before Geyles Heyshame, maior of Lancaster 12 Jul 1656."
"3 p. 16A M. Of same parties before Geyles Heyshame 06 Aug 1656."
Also, Mr. Thomas Butler and Mrs. Elizabeth Fleetwood were married before Geyles Heysham, mayor of Lancaster.

The following line from the Lancaster burial records is interesting.

"Jane Baley fil: vx Geyles Heesham of Lancr
by her first husband . . . 03 Nov 1660" - from "Burials, Lancaster Parish Register"
I think this means that Jane was the daughter, fil, of Mr. Baley [Bayley, Baillie] (who must have been important enough the Jane was so identified, rather than simply as Jane Heesham), and the wife, vx, of Geyle Heesham. Does "by her first husband" mean that Jane's mother remarried after Mr. Baley died? Geyles did not die until 1664 and apparently remarried soon after Jane's death.

I also have a list of heiresses from Powys-Lybbe Ancestry that shows a Jane Baillie as 8G Grandmother. Importantly, it has a Hester Heysham as 7G Grandmother and as "2nd dau. and very probably co-heir, possibly eventual sole heir." This must be (19) Hester Hyshame (1662), the grand-daughter of Geyles and Jane. While there ought to be two generations separating Jane and Hester, most researchers base their genealogy on William Heysham's submission to the Heralds for a coat-of-arms and he, unaccountably, confounded his grandfather and great-grandfather, both named Gyles, so leaving just one generation between these two women.

I think the close relations between members of the Thornton and Baillie families, below, denote the familial relationship established by the marriage of Geyles Heysham and Jane Baley [Baillie] and that of his son, Geyles Jr., and Elizabeth Thornton.

The Baillie Family

This family is significant because James Baillie, at the bottom of this descent, had dealings with Edmund Thornton, merchant of Grenada.

(1) Alexander Baillie

Seventh Laird of Dunain. Married Catharine Munro of Millton.

(2) David Baillie

Second son of Alexander and Catharine and first Laird of Dochfour, which his father bequethed him. His sons were Alexander, Hugh, and William.

(3) Alexander Baillie

He married Hannah Fraser in 1709. His children were Hugh, William, Evan, David and Isabella.

(4) Hugh Baillie (c1700)

Of Dochfour, Scotland. He married Emilia Fraser in 1730. Their sons were Alexander, James and Evan. Henry Laurens, who maintained a merchantile relationship with Gyles Heysham, of Lancaster, also corresponded with the Baillie sons. The family antecedents include Dunain, Dochfour and Lamington.

(5) James Baillie (1737-1793)
Hugh Baillie

He was a Highland Scot with a plantation called the Hermitage in St. Patrick parish, Grenada, Northbrook in Demerara, and on St. Vincent which he had owned from at least the 1760's. After the 1770's he ran his merchant company from London. James entered a partnership called Thornton, Baillie and Campbell. MP for Horsham and colonial agent for Grenada circa 1792. James had a brother, Evan, a merchant in Bristol. James and Evan had begun on St. Kitts. James died in February 1793. His heir, Mrs. Colin Baillie, executed a power of attorney to George Baillie and Edmund Thornton jointly. The head of the new firm was George Baillie. George Baillie had been involved in the financing of slave voyages.

I have an Edmund Thornton (fl. 1789-1792) who owned a plantation in Grenada and must be the Edmund Thornton above. He was also a member of the local assembly. Edmund Thornton of Grenada and James Baillie of London merchant had correspondence and may have been business partners. Of Finsbury Square, Middlesex, Esquire, circa 1799.


The Thornton's of Skerton

Skerton is the village just north of Lancaster, across the Lune river.

The Thorntons have been established in Lancashire for several centuries. Of five brothers, Thomas was of Burks, co. Lancaster; William was of Haylet; Richard was of Deepclough; Jonathan was of Cathon; and John was of Skerton." - from "A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain."

Nicholas Thorenton of Oxcliffe (c1570)

"Nicholas Thorneton of Oxcliffe" was a Tax collector for Lonsdale Hundred in 1618. Oxcliffe is just west of Lancaster, across the Lune river

Nicholas Thornton of Skerton (c1615)

His father might e Nicholas Thornton of Oxcliffe. "Jane vxor Nicolai Thornton de Scearton . . . 17 Aprilis 1676" - from Deaths in "Lancashire Parish Register."

Thomas Thornton of Skerton (1654)

"Thomas s. of Nicholas Thornton of Skerton . . . 8 February 1654" - from Births in "Lancashire Parish Register."

John Thornton of Skerton (c1680)

William Thornton of Skerton (c1710)

Edmund Thornton (1747) John Thornton of Skerton (c1680) William Thornton of Skerton (c1710)

Of Whittington Hall, in Lancashire, per the National Archives. This makes him one of the Thornton's of Skerton. "

Edmund was born on 22 September 1747. He married Jane, the daughter of Reverend Thomas Butler, the rector of Bentham and Whittington, archdeacon of Chester and Doncaster, and chaplain to the Duke of Devonshire, on 29 December 1796. This late marriage shows the effect of his long sojourn in Grenada. However, also see what another researcher wrote,

"Came across you site via Google when researching Edmund Thornton of Grenada. I can confirm that while in Grenada Edmund Thornton took as mistress Judith Philip, a mulatto and free slave owner of not inconsiderable holdings in the West Indies. When Edmund Thornton returned to England to marry and produce heirs, he moved Judith Philip and their four children with him and they were set up in a house a few blocks from his wife and children. The children of Edmund Thornton and Judith Philip were: Magdelaine Judith, Anne Rachel, Judith and Louis-Edmund. In 1798 he [Edmund Thornton] had an address in Finsbury Square, London. In 1799 he is cited as being of Whittington Hall, Lancashire, in an Article of Agreement with among others James Baillie of London. Edmund Thornton, who died in 1821, was in business with James Baillie, who also took up residence in London. Pallott's Marriage Index lists an Edmund Thornton Esquire of Whittington's marriage to a Jane Butler in 1796 at Bentham, Yorkshire."
Edmund died on 25 June 1821.

Note that the arms of the Baily family of Hoddesdon, in Hertfordshire [near Little Munden] were argent, three torteaux, and a chief gules - from "Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire." Note too that Geyles' descendant, William Heysham, used "in a chief three torteaux [gules]" in his arms. Does this indicate a link? It would, after all, be appropriate in the design of arms for Geyles' descendants to include the devices of both the husband's and wife's families. If this is correct, how did the two meet? Was there already a connection between Lancaster and Hertford in 1630, when they most likely married? Did this connection later lead to Geyles grandson, Robert, settling in Hertfordshire, with a property in Little Munden that he received by marrying the daughters of Edmund Thornton?

The Baily Family of Hoddesdon

I don't have much yet on this family. Hoddesdon is about 4 miles southeast of Hertford, in the county of Hertfordshire. This is just north of London. There is or was a Bayley Hall Park/Estate in Hertfordshire. See also the Bayley Family Website. There are also Bayly's of the Isle of Wight, Hampshire, Louth, Lincolnshire, Maidford, Northamptonshire, Duckington, Oxfordshire, and Stowford, Wiltshire.

(13) Henry Bayley (c1495)

He died in 1551. His sons were Edward Bualey, John Bualey, and Elizabeth Bayly.

(14) Edward Bualey (1520)
(13) Henry Bayley (c1495)

He was baptized in 1520. His children wre Thomas Bayli, Banyard Bualey [baptized 1545], Elener Bayly, William Bayley [baptized 1555], and Humphrey Baylye [baptized 1555].

(15) Thomas Bayli (c1550)
(13) Henry Bayley (c1495) (14) Edward Bualey (1520)

His children were Thomas Bayly, Elizabeth Bayly, Margaret Baylye [baptized 1572], Thomas Bayly [buried 1575], and Humphrey Bailise.

(16) Thomas Bayly (c1570)
(13) Henry Bayley (c1495) (14) Edward Bualey (1520) (15) Thomas Bayli (c1550)

He married Ann Lync. Their chidren were Thomas Bailise [born circa 1595, married circa 1620 St. Lawrence, Darlaston], and . . .

(16) Sir John Baily/Bayley (c1570)

Of Hoddesdon. The father of Ursula. He is in the right generation to be the father of Jane Baley.

(17) Ursula Baily (1599)
(16) John Baily (c1570)

Ursula, the daughter of John Baily of Hodsden [sic], Hertford, married Henry Bunbury of Stanney and Hoole, Chester. She died 23 March 1652 at the age of 53.


John Bayly of Hoddesdon (c1650)

He married Lettice, the daughter of Sir William Skeffington, Sheriff of Staffordshire, first Baronet of Fisherwick.


William Bayley (c1700)

William Bayley, a younger son of the Baily/Bayley family family of Hoddeston. "He was a gentleman of means and education." He emigrated to America in 1726 and settled in Fairfield, Connecticut [or New Rochelle, New York?]. He married Susanna le Compte. Their sons were Richard and Cornwall. Richard became a Doctor and his grandson was James Roosevelt Bayley, a Roman Catholic Archbishop of Baltimore. The latter used the Baily arms in his ecclesiastical arms, left.


There is also a hamlet called Baley or Bayley in Lancashire, near Hurst Green, on the north side of the Ribble river. This is about 5 miles southwest of Clitheroe. The local lords at the time appear to have been the Shirburn's [Shereburn, Sherburne]. They were an ancient family whose first line ended in a female heir. She married a de Bayley who then took the Sherburne name. Baley [Bayley, Bailey] Hall, a moated medieval manor house with a now ruined chapel, was occupied by at least some of the Sherburne's. Their arms, however, were a silver eagle on a green background. The Bayley Arms Hotel is in Hurst Green.

8 September 1661. ". . . for a Collection towards the Repair of the Collegiate Church of Ripon in Yorkshire . . . and the money by them gathered, to be paid in to Joseph Rigby gent. Clark [sic] of the peace & Mr. Gyles Heysham who is authorised to receive the same." - from "Transactions of the the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire." In another document Mr. Gyles Heysham of Lancaster is noted to have been appointed treasurer thereof [Lancaster]. Joseph Rigby was the brother of George Rigby and shared duties as Clerk of the Peace.

A "Gyles Heisham gen:" was buried on 22 May 1664 - from the Lancaster Parish Register of Burials.

"[1664] May Gyles Heisham gen. sepult . . . xxiith" - from "Remains, Historical and Literary, Connected with the Palatine Counties of ..." by Chetham Society

There is a Lancashire will for a Giles Heysham dated 1664. In "A List of the Lancashire Wills Proved Within the Archdeaconry of Richmond" by Henry Fishwick, both a "Heysham, Giles, of Lancaster, A[mounderness] . . . Admon 1664" and a "Heesom, Giles, of Lancaster, A[mounderness] . . . Admon 1664" are included. I assume these are both the same man. So, at this date Heesom=Heysham.

"Mrs Heesham of Lanc: late wife of Geyles Heesham gent: . . . 28 November 1664," buried at St. Mary, Lancaster. Geyles must have married after the death of Jane Baley in 1660. We know that the wife of Geyles Jr., Elizabeth Thornton, did not die until 1716.

Historical Timeline: Reign of Kings; Restoration of the House of Stuart:
1660-1685 Charles II

Charles II led a bawdy court famous for its royal mistresses. It was not famous of its intellect. Restricted in his income by Parliament, the King accepted money from France’s King Louis XIV.

Dutch colonies in America were seized and given to Charles' brother James, the Duke of York (hence New York city). The Pennsylvania colony was founded by William Penn as a Quaker refuge.

1665 - Bubonic Plague strikes London. 70,000 die.
1665 - The Great Fire levels London (and frees the city of the plague).

Fashion

After the rule of the Puritans was overthrown in the Restoration of King Charles II, their restrictions on singing, dancing, the theater, and modes of behavior and dress were also overthrown. Men began to wear their hair long in flowing tresses. Because many men could not grow their hair to such lengths, wigs came into fashion. During the last quarter of the Seventeenth Century the wearing of very large, long wigs, usually dark in color like the King’s own hair, was the norm. Shorter wigs, but powdered, came into fashion In the early Eighteenth Century.

Men’s clothing also tended to the fantastic with bright colors, expensive fabrics, and an abundance of lace. All of this extravagant display was the sign of a gentleman who could not only afford the dress, but had a lifestyle that allowed him to get away with wearing clothes fit only for the drawing room. It was not until the reign of King George IV that the fashion plate of the day, Beau Brummell, introduced the black or dark blue suit which men continue to wear to this day.

The Mayor of Lancaster would have been outfitted with ceremonial robes of some extravagance to illustrate the importance of his position and the wealth of his community. On the right, see the dress of the Lord Mayor of London during the reign of King George IV.

Gyles children were,
(18) Anne Heysham (1632)
(18) Margret Hyshame (1632)
(18) Gyles Hyshame (1635)
(18) John Heysham (c1635), see the John Heysham page
(18) William Heisham (1637/8)
(18) Ellen Heysham (1640)
(18) Anne Heesham (1642)

(18) Anne Heysham (1632)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Heysham (c1580) (17) Giles Heysham (1603)

Anne Heesham, daughter of Geyles, was christened on 28 March 1632 at St. Mary’s, Lancaster. I will assume that her christening was delayed, for ill health or bad weather, to make the christening of Margret, below, more reasonable. She must have died young since there is another Ann, daughter of Giles, below.

(18) Margret Hyshame (1632)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4)

"Margret Hyshame fa. Egidij [Giles] . . . 6 October 1632," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster. Was she the "cozen Margaret Heysham" mentioned in the Crackenthorp will, above?

(18) Gyles Hyshame (1635)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4)

"Gyles Hyshame f. Egedij [Gyles] . . . 1 January 1635," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster. Giles is sometimes shown as born on 20 January 1603. This date of birth is a confusion with his father's birth date, though his grandson, William Heysham, also left out one of the two Gyles in his genealogy. Others have been confused by these two Giles,

"Robert and William Heysham, who settled in London, were apparently not sons, but grandsons of the Giles Heysham whose letter of 1638 has been referred to." - from "Notes and Queries" Volume 93 by William White
In favor of the younger Gyles existence, note that in his daughter's baptism he was referred to as Gyles Heisham Jr.
"Ann d[aughter]. of Gyles Heisham of Lancr junior" baptized 7 May 1658, Saint Mary, Lancaster - from the Lancaster Parish register of Baptisms
Giles' father, Giles Sr., died six years later, in 1664.

Giles Heysham, the son of Giles Heysham, married Elizabeth Thornton, the daughter of "Robert Thornton of Oxcliffe, nr. Lancaster, gent." - from a biography of Giles' sons, Robert and William, in a history of the Parliament. Elizabeth was baptized on 11 June 1628 - from the "Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica".

Another researcher, Tim Powys-Lybbe, says Elizabeth's father was Thomas Thornton of Oxcliff based on the "Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica," Volume IV, edited by Joseph Hackson Howard. I don't see this in that volume. This may be a confusion with Giles' son, Robert, who married two Thorntons, one the daughter of Edmund, the other of Thomas Thornton.

Elizabeth Thornton was baptized on 11 June 1628.

Oxcliffe

A village in Lancaster parish, Lancashire. It is on the west bank of the Lune river, between Heysham and Lancaster.

Not much is known about Gyles, probably because he died young. I presume he was, like his father and his sons, a merchant.

1665. A proclamation dealing with Burgess William Yeates was signed by

"Robert Bindlos, Baronet, Mayor of the borough or town of Lancaster in the county of Lancater, William Townson and Giles Heysham [Egidius Hoysham], gentlemen, Bailiffs of the same borough or town [Ballivi Lancastrenses] . . . " - from "The Town Book of the Corporation of Belfast, 1613-1816" by Robert Magill Young
This is probably our Giles, since his father died the year before.

The Bailiff

There were many types of bailiffs, including manorial stewards and servants of the Sheriff. In this case the Bailiff was one of the chief officers of the town government, ranking just below the Mayor. In Lancaster there were two bailiffs, a High and a Low, though sometimes they were referred to as the Senior and Junior, or King's and Town's bailiff, or bailiff of the brethren and bailiff of the commons. The bailiff of the brethren, like the mayor, was elected annually on the Thursday after October 18th, by the aldermen and capital burgesses, from their own bodies, and the bailiff of the commons, by the free burgesses, from the common council-men.

The Bailiffs acted as a Sheriff within the borough, having quasi-judicial powers. They collected rents, fees and fines, and made distraints. They selected and summoned juries, and executed the orders of the court.

The Constitution and Orders of the town of Lancaster included the following rules:

"8. The mayor and bailiffs to prove bread and ale once in the month at least.
9. No person to be mayor, bailiff, auditor, fearer, or pricker two years together. No mayor or bailiff shall be pricker or auditor the year next after have served the said officer of mayorship or bailiff.
. . .
19. Bailiffs to stallenge [assess] artificers, merchants and victuallers only one penny [] Saturday.
20. Mayor and bailiffs to cause these constitutions to be read once every [] in the presence of the freemen.
. . .
23. The mayor, bailiff, and brethren to have gowns.
24. The bailiffs' sergeant and bellman shall give attendance upon the [] every Saturday and principal feast days, and when strangers be in the town.
25. The sergeants and bellman to be attorneys in all foreign pleas.
33. Mayor, bailiff sergeant, or under bailiff to be a freeman, and to be sworn.
The time spent in taverns "proving of ale" apparently caused problems for some bailiffs who lost their businesses through drunkeness.

Each of the sacrament certificates below was signed by the minister, the churchwarden, a set of witnesses and, I believe, a town representative. In two cases that was Giles.
- 22 April 1677. Lancashire County Quarter Sessions: Sacrament Certificates: "Lancaster. Gyles Heysham, yeoman. Minister. Thomas Withers. Churchwarden. Thomas Postlethwaite. Witnesses. James Hardman, parish clerk and Jenet, wife of Richard Singleton of Scearton." Note the possible link to the marriage of William Heysham and Dorothy Postelthwaite on the "John Heysham" page. The Worshipful Thomas Postlethwaite, esquire, was mayor of Lancaster in 1751.
- 31 March 1678. Lancashire County Quarter Sessions: Sacrament Certificates: "Lancaster, Gyles Heysham, gent. Minister, Edmund Garforth. Witnesses. James Hardman, parish clerke, and William Houseman of Skerton, husbandman."
- 31 March 1678. Lancashire County Quarter Sessions: Sacrament Certificates: "Lancaster. Thomas Simpson of Torisholme, gent. Churchwarden. Richar Chatborne. Witnesses. Gyles Heysham, and John Tompson, both of Lancaster, yeoman."

Gyles is called both a yeoman and a gentleman at different points. Here yeoman may simply mean "not gentry," not of the nobility. It may also refer to the basic difference that, while both may own land, the yeoman works the land himself while the gentry rented out their land for others to work.

Correspondence by Gyles addressed to Roger Kenyon II of Peel, dated 2 September 1679: "Geyles Heysham, Lancaster, Sending venison and a salmon." Roger Kenyon, Clerk of the Peace, was George Rigby's son-in-law and the heir of Peel Hall. Giles is here apparently filling the same role with the Clerk of the Peace that his father and grandfather did.

He seems to have died rather suddenly. "Gyles Heessam of Lancr . . . 21 February 1680," buried at St. Mary, Lancaster. He would have been 45 years old. I have a Lancashire will for a Giles Heysham dated 1680 which was proved within the archdeanary of Richmond. It is currently at Somerset House, London. His wife, Elizabeth, lived another 36 years.

Elizabeth's six children would have been from 13 to 21 years old, and all at home, when she was left a single mother. She got all of her daughters into good marriages and started her sons on extremely successful careers. She lived long enough to see two of her sons in Parliament. Elizabeth Heysham died and was buried in Lancaster on 11 July 1716. She was predeceased by her children Anne, Giles, William and Elizabeth.

Robert Carter, who had married Elizabeth's eldest daughter, Anne, was the executor of Elizabeth's will. There was a dispute over the administration of this will.

"1724/3 John Thornton, gent. c. Robert Carter, gent., of Lancaster, executor of Elizabeth Heysham, widow, of Lancaster, dec.
ARCH.CT.RICHMOND, Carter appellant [1723]
Failure to exhibit inventory of goods of Elizabeth Heysham" - from "Borthwick Texts and Calendars"
I think "c." referred to some latinate variant of counter or contest to show that John was suing Robert. John Thornton was probably Elizabeth's grandson, the eldest son of her daughter Elizabeth, and Edmund Thornton. Since John's parents had both died by 1713, he would have been the head of the Thornton family [see the Thornton-Heysham page]. Note that in 1722 Robert Heysham's will had given John Thornton the house in which, up until that time, Robert and Anne Carter had been living. Perhaps there was some bad blood there, or it was simply that, as you'll read below, Robert Carter was a poor money-manager.

Robert, William and Elizabeth were children of Gyles according to genealogist George Lissant [see Links]. Another website lists another daughter, Hester. I also have a Giles Heysham Jr. as his eldest son and Anne as his eldest daughter.
(19) Anne Heysham (1658)
(19) Geyles Heesham (1660)
(19) Hester Hyshame (1662)
(19) Robert Heisham (1663)
(19) William Heesham (1667)
(19) Elizabeth Heesham (1666/7)

Historical Timeline: Reign of Kings, The Stuarts
1685-1688 James II

Brother to Charles. He publicy converted to Catholicism causing the people to fear a forced return of the Catholic religion upon his assension to the throne. The English Revolution followed the birth of a male heir to the King. The King and his household fled to France. The King's son, which the Protestant’s refused to believe legitimate, became known as the “Old Pretender.”


Historical Timeline: Reign of Kings, The House of Orange
1689-1702 William & Mary

William of Orange and his queen, Mary, the daughter of James II, seized the throne without bloodshed, in part engineered by John Churchill, a forebear of William Churchill. James II fled to the court of France. This became known as the "Glorious Revolution." William was the son of William II, prince of Orange, in the Netherlands, and Mary, was the eldest daughter of King James I of England.

William III led a European alliance that worked ceaselessly, and successfully, to restrict the power of King Louis XIV’s France.

By 1700 the population of England and Wales had grown to 6 million.


The City of Lancaster and the Slave Trade

Maritime trade had been a part of the life of Lancaster for most of its history and by the 17th century it was the fourth largest port in England, after London, Bristol and Liverpool. The first known voyage from Lancaster to America occurred in the 1670s. It was arranged by John Hodgson, who became rich by importing tobacco from Virginia. Others quickly began to invest in 'the colonial trade' with America and the West Indies.

From 1736 one of the cargoes that Lancaster ships transported was slaves.

After reaching their height in 1800 the number of voyages out of Lancaster quickly declined as other, better situated, ports took away its trade and the city's "golden age" was over. See Lancaster Virtual Tour for more information and photographs.


St. Mary’s

The Priory of St. Mary’s was founded in 1094 by Roger de Poitou on the site of an earlier Anglo-Saxon church, very probably a monastery dating from the 9th century. Roger gave the church and its associated properties to the Benedictine Abbey of St. Martin of Sees in Normandy. Most of the present building dates from the 15th century, except for the tower, which was rebuilt in the 18th century. It is located next to the old Norman castle of Lancaster, also built by Count Roger.

In 1414 King Henry V handed over the running of Lancaster Priory to the Bishop of Durham who gave it to an English monastic house – the Brigittine Convent of Syon at Syon Park, Isleworth, Middlesex. In 1430 it became the parish church of Lancaster.

In 1539 King Henry VIII abolished monastic institutions ending 445 years of monks living the religious life in and around St Mary's Church. St. Mary's has continued as Lancaster parish church to the present day.

In 1717 William Heysham, Member of Parliament for the Town of Lancaster, presented three great brass candelabra of Flemish design, to Lancaster Priory. They may have been made considerably earlier. They hang there still.


(19) Anne Heysham (1658)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635)

"Ann d. of Gyles Heisham of Lancr junior . . . 7 May 1658," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster - from the Lancaster Parish register of Baptisms. In the LDS database she was shown to be the daughter of Giles Heysham and Elizabeth Thornton. She married Robert Carter, Alderman of the town of Lancaster, in 1686. He was an ironmonger.

"About the same time the above said Robert Carter, by reason of his neglect of his business and expensive living, overrun his credit, and was forced to give over his trade; but by the favour of his creditors had his liberty, and got to be land-waiter [landing-waiter; a custom house officer who oversaw the landing of goods from vessels] in the custom-house. He also married Ann Heysam, sister of Robert and Geyls Heysam, and after they [sic] got into parliament, got him to be receiver of the land and other taxes, and other beneficial employs, by which he might have got an estate, yet died poor. He had one daughter, married to Foster Cunliffe, with whom her uncles Heysam gave £1000 portion." - from the "Autobiography of William Stout, of Lancaster, Wholesale and Retail Grocer and Ironmonger."
"Land waiter in the Custom House(Robert Carter). Carter was appointed 'waiter and searcher in Lancaster port and to act for the patent searcher with the searcher's fees of that port,' in place of Philip Butler, who was a papist . . . Carter was dismissed 28 June 1699 . . . The Port Books show him to have been involved in foreign trade in the early years of this century, e.g. in the Imployment's Barbados voyages managed by Stout." - from "The Autobiography of William Stout of Lancaster, 1665-1752"
Robert Carter was Alderman of Lancaster in 1686 and Mayor of the city in 1699 and again in 1707 and 1717. The author of the citations above, William Stout, a Quaker merchant, consigned cargo to William Heysham in Barbadoes on several occassions, but was not satisfied with his management, "who always sent short of returns."

I have two Carters living in Lancashire in 1684.

"Carter, James, 6, Market St.
--- Rt. [Robert], 31, Market St. Ironmonger; nominated a capital burgess in the charter of 1684; mayor 1699, 1707 and 1717. Married Ann, sister of William Heysham, M.P., who "got him to be receiver of the land and other taxes and other beneficial employs, yet he died poor". In 1709 he and Thomas Westmore built a gallery in St. Mary's Church. Died 1724." - from a list of inhabitants of Lancaster in 1684, provided by Matt Archer

Anne died and was buried on 6 December 1710 in Lancaster - from the LDS database.

Robert was still living in 1724/3, the executor of the will of his mother-in-law, Elizabeth Heysham.

"1724/3 John Thornton, gent. c. Robert Carter, gent., of Lancaster, executor of Elizabeth Heysham, widow, of Lancaster, dec.
ARCH.CT.RICHMOND, Carter appellant [1723]
Failure to exhibit inventory of goods of Elizabeth Heysham" - from "Borthwick Texts and Calendars"
John Thornton was probably the son of Elizabeth, filing suit against his uncle, Robert Carter, because of issues with Robert's administration of the will.

Robert's children,
(20) Margaret Carter (1687)
(20) Elizabeth Carter (1689), baptized 15 December 1689, died unmarried and was buried in East Greenwich in Kent 16 July 1710.
(20) Hester Carter (1692), baptized 27 November 1692. Buried 30 March 1694.

(20) Margaret Carter (1687)

She was baptized on 16 November 1687. "Margt Carter" married Foster Cunliffe, merchant of Liverpool, Esq., on 19 June 1714 at St. Mary, Lancaster. He was born in 1682, the son of Dr. Ellis Cunliffe, of Cambridge. Foster was a merchant of Liverpool who made his fortune, at least in part, from the slave trade. His firmed owned 26 ships, entirely or in part.

"He was mayor of the city three times and President of the Liverpool Infirmary and a sponsor of the Bluecoat School. When he wasn't exercising his philanthropic impulses, he sent three or four ships to collect African slaves each year in the 1730s. Before his death, Foster Cunliffe had ensured his son Ellis a seat in parliament." - from "bbc.co.uk"
Also,
"About the beginning of the century Foster became an apprentice to Richard Norris; in 1708 he was renting a store and house from Sir Thomas Johnson [Norris and Johnson were the most prominent merchants in Liverpool] and possessed a merchandise worth £24. Cunfliffe rose rapidly; at thirty-four he was elected mayor [1716] and was reelected in 1729 and 1735. All the while he was extending his trade in the Atlantic economy. His ship Content in 1726 carried 145 slaves from the Gold Coast to Virginia, and having first called at St. Kitts it imported sugar and molasses as well. During the 1730s and 1740s he plied a brisk trade in slaves to Virginia; his ship Liverpool Merchant, eighty tons, built in Liverpool in 1724, regularly supplied slaves to Virginia, making six voyages in the 1730s that disembarked 899 Africans to the expanding tobacco plantations." - from "The Transatlantic Slave Trade" by James A. Rawley, Stephen D. Behrendt
His firm, Foster Cunliffe & Sons, transported 1,944 slaves to the Chesapeake in 20 voyages from 1727 to 1756, making him Liverpool's largest supplier to the region. He was highly involved in the American market, buying tobacco along the Potomac and Maryland's eastern shore. In the 1740's and 1750's his firm also became involved in shipping indentured servants and convicts to America.

Foster died in 1758.

The Cunliffe Family

Of Cundcliff, now Cunliffe Hill, in the townsip of Billington, near Blackburn, Lancashire. I have a Robert de Cundeclif of York in 1273, and an Adam de Cunliffe, 1317-1318. In 1282 Adam named one of the 12 principal persons of Manchester. The family was noted has having lands and a hall at Billington, near Whalley, until the War of the Roses. Afterwards of Wycoller Hall, Whalley.

(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's)

He and his brother, Robert, were Members of Parliament for Lancashire. Leaders of the Royalist cause in the 1640's.

(17) Unknown Cunliffe
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's)

(18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650)
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe

Noted Cambridge divine who settled in the north. Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge.

(19) Foster Cunliffe (1682)
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe

Of the Cunliffe's of Whycllar, near Colne, Lancashire. He was originally intended for the church, but "evinced a decided preference for commercial pursuits." Member of the Liverpool Committe of Merchants trading to Africa. He married Margaret, the daughter of Robert Carter and Anne Heysham.

(20) Sir Ellis Cunliffe, Bart. (1717)
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650) (19) Foster Cunliffe (1682)

He was born on 12 April 1717. He and his brother, Robert, continued the trade though they operated through managers rather than the direct manipulation of their father. Member of Parliament for Liverpool 1755-1767. Knighted in 1756. Created Baronet in 1759. He died in October 1767, s.p. Succeeded by his brother.

(20) Sir Robert Cunliffe, Bart. (1719)
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650) (19) Foster Cunliffe (1682)

Of Saighton, in Cheshire. He was born on 17 May 1719. Second Baronet. He became director of the company, with Robert Morris as manager. The company did well, but with Morris' death in 1750 things began to slide. The family business in Liverpool ceased trading in 1759. Mayor of Liverpool in 1758. Member of Parliament. Robert died in 1778.

(21) Sir Foster Cunlifffe, Bart. (1755)
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650) (19) Foster Cunliffe (1682) (20) Robert Cunliffe Bart.

He was born on 8 February 1755. Third Baronet, right, of Acton Park, Wrexham, Denbighshire, which he bought in 1787. Unlike his father and grandfather, he was not involved in the slave trade, rather he preferred to act the role of country gentry. "Sir Foster Cunliffe was a grandson of Foster Cunliffe, King Charles the Second's godson, the Liverpool merchant, who, according to Foster's Lancashire Families, 'became not only the first man in Liverpool, but was supposed to have a more extended commerce than any merchant in the kingdom, and declined all solicitations that he should represent Liverpool in Parliament.'" - from "Book-plates" by William John Hardy

He marred Harriet, the daughter of Sir David Kinloch, Bart., in 1781. Foster was a noted art collector and was perhaps best known for introducing the sport of archery into Cheshire. He greatly improved the grounds at Acton Park, below, with a landscaped park with garden and lake. During the Napoleanic Wars he commanded the local yeomanry cavalry unit.

A local wag did not appreciate Sir Cunliffe's strict economy in this period and scrawled on his park gate:

"A great house and no cheer
A large park and no deer
Large cellars and no beer
Sir Foster Cunliffe lives here."
Sir Foster died on 15 June 1834 at the age of 79. His sons were Foster, Robert Henry, Ellis Watkin, Brooke and George.

(22) Foster Cunliffe, Esq (1782)
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650) (19) Foster Cunliffe (1682) (20) Robert Cunliffe Bart. (21) Sir Foster Cunlifffe, Bart. (1755)

Eldest son of Sir Foster Cunliffe, Bart., he was born in August 1782. Member of Parliament. He married Emma, the daughter of John, Baron Crewe, on 21 April 1809. Later Cunliffe-Offley of Madeley. He d.s.p., apparently predeceasing his father.

(22) Sir Robert Henry Cunliffe Bart. (c1785)
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650) (19) Foster Cunliffe (1682) (20) Robert Cunliffe Bart. (21) Sir Foster Cunlifffe, Bart. (1755)

Sir Foster's second son, he became the 4th Baronet. He served 33 years in the East India Company army and was, in 1838, a promoted Major General. This must have been a post hoc promotion because I show him back in England in 1833, and certainly no later than 1834 when he succeeded his father. Member of Parliament. He died in 1859. One of Sir Robert's sons was the Rev. Henry Cunliffe (16 March 1826-1 August 1894).

(23) Unknown Cunliffe
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650) (19) Foster Cunliffe (1682) (20) Robert Cunliffe Bart. (21) Sir Foster Cunlifffe, Bart. (1755) (22) Robert Henry Cunliffe Bart.

There is apparently a generation missing here. One document I've seen shows Robert being succeeded by his grandson, another Robert. It is possible, however, that when Sir Robert returned to England in 1833 he then married, having a child in about 1835. That would make the Robert, below, 70 years old at his death in 1905, a pretty reasonable date.

(24) Sir Robert Alfred Cunliffe Bart.
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650) (19) Foster Cunliffe (1682) (20) Robert Cunliffe Bart. (21) Sir Foster Cunlifffe, Bart. (1755) (22) Robert Henry Cunliffe Bart. (23) Unknown Cunliffe

The fifth Baronet. An army officer. Liberal MP for Flintshire 1872-1874. MP for Denbighshire 1880-1885. He died in 1905. The last of the family to live at Acton Park.

(25) Sir Foster Hugh Egerton Cunliffe Bart. (1875)
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650) (19) Foster Cunliffe (1682) (20) Robert Cunliffe Bart. (21) Sir Foster Cunlifffe, Bart. (1755) (22) Robert Henry Cunliffe Bart. (23) Unknown Cunliffe (24) Robert Alfred Cunliffe Bart.

The Sixth Baronet. Educated at Eton and at New College, Oxford. Unsuccesful in two bye-elections for Parliament, in 1906 and 1909. A lecturer on Military History at Oxford. He wrote the official history of the Boer War. Major in the Rifle Brigade. He died in Flanders at the Battle of the Somme in 1916. He never married. Succeeded by his brother.

(25) Sir Robert Neville Henry Cunliffe Bart. (1884)
(16) Nicholas Cunliffe (c1620's) (17) Unknown Cunliffe (18) Ellis Cunliffe (c1650) (19) Foster Cunliffe (1682) (20) Robert Cunliffe Bart. (21) Sir Foster Cunlifffe, Bart. (1755) (22) Robert Henry Cunliffe Bart. (23) Unknown Cunliffe (24) Robert Alfred Cunliffe Bart.

He was born on 8 February 1884. The Seventh Baronet. The Acton Park estate was sold piecemeal in the 1920's. Robert died on 1 May 1949.

Anne Cunliffe, a Heysham descendent through Foster Cunliffe and Margaret Carter, the daughter of Anne Heysham and Robert Carter, married William Shawe and was the grandmother of Philippa Emma Shawe. Phillippa was the second wife of Henry Philip Powys, after Julia Barrington, his first wife. Julia was the granddaughter of Jane Hall, another Heysham descendent through Matthew Hall and Jane Barker, the daughter of Hester Heysham. The two wives were thus related as fourth cousins.

(19) Geyles Heesham (1660)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635)

"Geyles Heesham f. Geyles of Lancr" was baptized on "19 February 1660" in Saint Mary church, Lancaster - from the Parish Register. He was the eldest son of Geyles Heesham and Elizabeth Thornton.

He was only 20 years old when his father died in 1679. His mother was undoubtedly a strong-willed woman, just look at the success of her sons and the marriages of her daughters, but Giles must have felt the pressure of suddenly becoming the "man of the family." I suspect his uncle, John Heysham, a shipowner and merchant in Lancaster, also provided a great deal of help to the family.

Giles became a merchant and later lived on the sugar-island of Barbados, as did his younger brother, William. Giles stayed there from at least 1691 to about 1698. The following is an account of billings at Barbados, circa 1698.

"An Account of what papers are in my hand as Bills of Exchange &c.', totalling £1303:0:0. Mention is made of Jonathan Langley, William Bridges, Thomas Garth, [?], Bowlls, Eras [...] Fetter, Samuel Martyn, Daniel Reeve, Vincent Cutter, John Farmer, William Broke, Phillip Philips, Messrs. Jyles Robert Heysham, Samuel Shurman, Thomas Tryon and Richard Wilkinson. The bills are at nos. 489 to 497. Endorsed in Lady Russell's hand: 'these are ye a Counts of Bils of Exchang sent from Borbadoss with ye heds of Colonall Russels Letter Relating to his Regements a Counts." - from the National Archive, the Archer family of Tanworth, Warwickshire
Jyles is clearly Gyles and I suspect the reference to Robert was due to his large role in the island's economy. Also in 1698,
"30 May -- Petition of the Planters and Merchants concerned and trading to the Island of Barbados. Signed by Gyles Heysham and 14 others. Endorsed as read this day. Lords Journals, XVI. 305."
Gyles married Barbara, the daughter of Thomas Afflick of the Isle of Barbados, circa 1690 - from the "Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica". However, I have a Barbara, the daughter of Andrew Afflick and Ruth Holloway, that might work better. She was born in Chester Le Street, Durham, in Jan-Mar 1657. Lieutenant Colonel Afflick [Affleck], a Scottish emigrant, owned a 100-acre plantation with 70 slaves in St. James parish, Barbodos. Andrew left a will,
"Afflick, Andrew Esq of Bdos
16 May 1687, RB6/40, p. 563
Eight of my chn: Elizabeth Afflick, Susan Afflick, Barbara Afflick, Thomas Afflick, Agnes Afflick, Honor, Andrew Afflick [1679], & George Afflick; wf Honor Afflick - Xtrx & Gdn; friends Jno: Reid & Abell Allen Esq - Xtrs & Gdns if wf marries.
signed Andrew (x) Affleck
Wit: Laurence Trent Esq, Geo: Payne, Frances Skeete, Mathew Kenn Cod, 16 May 1687, Doctor Mathew Kenn. signed Andrew (x) Afflock
Proved 2 Nov 1687 - from "Barbados Wills and Aminstrations, Vol. II"
Note that Honour Alflick was included in Giles Heysham's will as his sister-in-law, below, and "Mr. Thomas Alflick and Ann" were given a bequest for mourning clothes.

Gyles Heysham was mentioned several times in "The Journal of the Barbados Museum" as a "sidesman" and as an "Overseer of the Poor." A sidesman, the term is a corruption of synod's man, was responsible for greeting members of the congregation, overseeing seating arrangements in church, and for taking the collection. A prominent man in the community would desire such a prominent, not to say visible, position in the church.

Giles was mentioned in the Will of Thomas Hogson, Merchant, 15 May 1693. ". . . Giles Haysham merchant & Mr. Reynolds mariner - Xtrs in trust" - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800."

Like most traders to the region, the Heysham brothers had slave interests. I have the following from 1693 to 1695.

"If the [Africa] Company had any obvious weakness it was for employing people whose family connection and contacts were opposed to any monopoly whatever, thus weakening the resolve of the Company from within . . . No less astonishing was the selection of Giles Heysham, the brother of well-known interloper Robert Heysham, as factor at Barbados in 1693. In 1695 Giles was replaced by another brother, William, whose securities were provided by the selfsame Robert! All three of them continued to trade on their own account to and from Africa. The Company excused itself on the grounds that it sought to advance its cause by appointing politically powerful figures in the plantocracy. Since these planters were usually involved in the slave trade, Company options were limited." - from "The Forgotten Trade" by Nigel Tattersfield
Who exactly has forgotten the slave trade?

Giles was mentioned in the Will of William Rogers, commander of the ship ALBERMARLE, 7 November 1694. "Mr. Isaac Woode to take charge of my ship and take it home to the owners; Mr. Gyles and William Heysham - Xtrs in trust." Proved 7 December 1694 - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800."

Giles Heysham was the agent in Barbados for the Royal Africa Company, a slaving firm. The city of Lancaster was a center of the slave trade and Barbados, during its heyday, was the destination of many young men looking to make a quick fortune in its sugar plantations. The infamous "triangular trade" involved a merchant ship out of England taking trade goods to the West African coast to exchange for slaves from the interior. These slaves were then transported to the sugar plantations on Barbados where they were sold. The profits from this were used to buy sugar to tranship to England. Sugar, previously rare, was a great sensation in Europe and the profits were high.

The following document makes it clear that Giles was a brother of Robert and William Heysham.

"BARBADOES. Observations, showing the great esteeem had for the Royal Afican Company; with Petitions of Robert Heysham (in 1693 and 1695) in behalf of his brothers, Giles and William Heysham, Merchants in the Island of Barbadoes. folio 1712" - from "Bibliotheca Geographica & Historica."
Another document agrees that all three men were brothers.
"105. Robert and Geyls Heysam. Robert Heysham was M.P. for Lancaster 1698-1714/15. William Heysham was M.P. for Lancaster, 1705-1727. Their brother Giles--all three appear in the Lancaster P.R.--was never an M.P." - from "The Autobiography of William Stout of Lancaster" by John Duncan Marshall
The reason Giles is missing from so many genealogies is probably due to his death soon after his return from the islands.

The Royal Africa Company

Between 1640-1660 the Barbados planters switched from tobacco and cotton to sugar, and from using white servants’ labor to black slaves. By 1645, Barbadians had imported 1000 Negro slaves. Between 1710 and 1810, 250,000 slaves were landed in Barbados alone of Britain’s “sugar islands”.

Founded in 1672, the Royal Africa Company, a royal monopoly established by King Charles II, set up six forts on the Gold Coast and one on the slave coast. The RAC had a sub-contract, or ASIENTO, with Spain to import slaves for them.

The company was comprised of merchants from London. Between 1680 and 1686, the Company transported an average of 5,000 slaves a year. Between 1680 and 1688, it sponsored 249 voyages to Africa. At left is a slave-chain in Dahomey, Africa.

From the MSS. of the House of Lords: 1698 May 30. Petition of the Planters and Merchants trading to the Island of Barbadoes against the Bill for settling the trade to Africa. Signed by Gyles Heysham and 14 others. Gyles' affairs with the RAC where not without complications:

"Although the profits of an agency were such as to give the company the choice of men of greater ability and probity than it could reasonably hope to attract to Africa, the history of the West Indian agents is not a particularly happy one. In the end the company contrived to quarrel with most of them. Skutt was dismissed in 1691 for his 'uneasie carriage to the planters, as also to Us'; Stede, after retirement, was accused of changing a '1' into a 3 by 'legerdemain'; Walter Ruding, killed in the Jamaican earthquake of 1692, left his affairs in a tangle and his securities were sued for reparation to the company; under different circumstances the securities of Charles Penhallow, Edward Belchamber and Giles Heysham were similarly prosecuted. That the last chapter in the relations between the company and so many of its West Indian agents should have been written in the law-courts does not necessarily betoken excessive severity on one side or excessive negligence and dishonesty on the other. Agents, by definition, were indebted to the company at all times, and untimely death was bound to leave their accounts in disorder. Many disputes originated in the accounting methods characteristic of the time, in poor communications, and in misunderstandings. These were common to all forms of business, but in a large-scale enterprise they were accentuated." - from "The Royal African Company" by K.G. Davies, 1957.

Giles returned to London where his son, Giles Jr., was born, and then soon died, in 1698. Giles' wife, Barbara, died soon after and was buried in the middle chancel of Camberwell Church on 30 December 1699. According to Angela Heysham, Barbara died in 1699 and was buried at Camberwell, this is part of greater London, in Southwark. A Barbara Hisham was buried on 30 December 1699 at St. Dunston in the East - Parish Registers, 1692-1766. As we've seen, this was the Giles Heysham church of choice. Perhaps only her burial was registered there?

In an act of Parliament in the 1700/1701 session, "An Act for granting an Aid to His Majesty for defraying the Expence of His Navy Guards and Garrisons for One Year," both the names of Robert and Giles Heysham are recorded as commissioners.

"That for the better assessing ordering levying and collecting of the severall Summes of Money so as aforesaid limited and appointed to be paid And for the more effectuall putting of this present Act in Execution all and every the Persons hereafter named shall be Commissioners of and for the severall and respective Counties Cities Boroughs Townes and Places hereafter mentioned" - from British History Online
Robert was for Essex, Hertford, London and Lancaster; Giles was for London and Lancaster. The commissioners executed the act, that is they collected the tax - and kept a share for their efforts.

". . . in the year 1700 [the will of] Giles Heysham, merchant, left to the town of Lancaster £100 which was applied to augment the Usher's salary." - from "Remains, Historical and Literary, Connected with the Palatine Counties of Lancaster and Chester." See the will below. Note that from 12 August 1714 to 19 December 1717 a Robert Heysham was the Usher, or assistant schoolmaster in the Lancaster school. This must of been a distant cousin.

Gyles Sr. died and was buried in London on 11 December 1702 at St. Dunston in the East. The "Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica" says he was buried in the middle chancel of Camberwell Church. He was not mentioned in the biography of Dr. Heysham, as were his brothers, but that may be because he died relatively young and was not so famous.

I have a will for a Gyles Heysham, Merchant of London, dated in 1700, with an addendum in 1702, and probated on 16 July 1703.

"In the name of God Amen:
I Gyles Heysham of London merchant doe make publish and declare this my last Will and Testament in manner following.
First and principally I commend my soule to Almighty God my Creator trusting in and through the Merits of Jesus Christ my Savior for salvation and my body I commite to the earth to be decently interred at the discretion of my Executor hereafter named and as touching the disposall of my worldly Estate wherewith God hath blessed me I give devise and bequeth the same as followeth, [Impriniss]
I give and bequeth to my two daughters Elizabeth and Barbara Heysham four thousand pounds a piece to be paid to them respectively at their respective attainments to the age of Eighteene yeares or day of marrige (which shall ffirst happen). And in the interim and until such attainment or day of marriage my mind and will is that my said childrens portions shall be laid out upon some good purchase or mortgage or otherwise as my Executor in England hereafter named shall think ffit. And in case of any loss happening upon putting or laying out of their said portions, my Will is that such loss and losses soe happening, shall be bornt and susteyned by my said Children equally and alike, but my Executor shall in no wise be answerable or lyable to make good the same, and in case of either of my said childrens death before such attainment or marriage as aforesaid, then I give and bequeth the part and portion of her soe dying into the survivour.
Item. I give to my brother Robert Heysham and to his wife ffour hundred pounds. [Robert's children, Robert Jr. and Jane, were not born yet]
Item. I give to my brother William Heysham and to his wife and to their two children William and Elizabeth one hundred pounds a piece.
Item. I give to my sister in law Honour Alflick and to Ann Kidd my god daughter ffifty pounds a piece.
Item. I give to Walter Scott [also mentioned in William's will] and his now wife twenty pounds a piece for rings and mourning.
Item. I give to Mr. Thomas Alflick and Ann his wife twenty pounds a piece for mourning. [His in-laws?]
Item. I give to the said Honour Alflick twenty pounds for mourning.
Item. I give unto Mr. Alexander [Horsdall?] and his wife twenty pounds a piece for rings and mourning;
All which legacies (my daughters portions excepted) I will and appoint shall be paid at Barbados out of my effects there.
Item. I give unto Mrs. Elizabeth Heysham my honoured Mother now in England two hundred pounds. [Elizabeth died in 1716]
Item. I give unto my said brother Robert Heysham two hundred pounds in trust for the use and benefitt of all the children of my sister [Ann Heysham] Carter.
Item. I give to the child or children of my sister [Hester Heysham] Barker wife of Hugh Barker Esquire two hundred pounds.
Item. I give to the child or children of Elizabeth Thornton [his third sister] wife of Edmond Thornton one hundred pounds.
Item. I give to Mr. Nicholas Baugh [Gyles' cousin] one hundred pounds.
Item. I give to Mrs. Margarett Bullough two hundred pounds.
Item. I give to my said honoured Mother, to my brother Robert Heysham and his wife, to my brother William Heysham and his wife, to my said sister Carter, to Esther Barker, and Elizabeth Thornton twenty pounds a piece for rings and mourning. To Mrs Hellena [Thornton] Baugh, Mr. Nicholas Baugh, to Mrs. Ann Thorneton, Mr. Edmond Thornton, Mrs. Ann Bullough and Mrs. Margaret Bullough tenn pounds a piece for mourning.
Item. I give to my said brother Robert Heysham ffifty pounds for him to dispose thereof to Mrs. Ann Sweetlove in such wise as he shall think fitt.
Item. I give devise and bequeth unto the Male issue [i.e. not yet born] of my said brother Robert Heysham (after my said Mothers decease) and to his heirs and assigns for ever all those my houses and lands with the appurtenances of what denomination soever they be situate, lying and being in the parish of Lancaster or else where within the county of Lancashire.
Item. In case my said brother Robert Heysham shall happen to dye without issue male I give devise and bequeth all my said houses, lands and appurtenances whatsoever within the said county of Lancashire into William Heysham son of my said brother William Heysham of Barbados Merchant and to his heirs and assignes forever.
Item. All the rest and residue of my estate whatsoever and wheresoever as noted reall and personall whether it consists of lands, houses, leases, debts standing out, goods, money, plate, [Ieweffs] thing and things whatsoever (and not herein before given and bequethed) I give devise and bequeth the same unto my said two children share and share alike, and in case of either of my said childrens death before such attainment or marriage as aforesaid, then I give devise and bequeth the part and share of her soe dying into the survivour of them, and if both my said children shall happen to dye before their respective attainment to the age of eighteen years or day of marriage as aforesaid, then I give devise and bequeth my said Childrens part and portions unto and amongst my relations, namely my said Mother Mrs. Elizabeth Heysham, my said brother Robert Heysham, my brother William Heysham, my sister Ann Carter (in trust only for her children), to my sister Hester Barker, to my sister Elizabeth Thornton and to their heirs and assigns for ever equally part and parts alike.
Item. I do hereby commit my said two children to the care and education of my said Brother Robert Heysham. It being my expresss will that they shall remaine under his care and government till their respective attainment to the age of eighteen years or day of marriage as aforesaid and I doe hereby nominate and appoint my said brother Robert Heysham my sole Executor in England for the management of my estate and effects in England, and I doe nominate and appoint my said brother William Heysham Executor for the management of my estate and effects in Barbados and elsewhere in the West Indies, and after the payment of my debts and legacies in Barbados, Itt is my Will desire that the remainder of my estate and effects in Barbados and elsewhere in the West Indies be remitted and sent over into England with all the [comeniensty] and dispatch that may be unto my said brother Robert Heysham to be disposed of to the use of this my last will and I doe hereby revoke all former will and wills by me heretofore made and doe hereby declare that these presents shall be and stand for my last Will and Testament conteined in one large sheet of paper set my hand and seale the ffive and twentieth day of January in the twelfth year of the reigne of our sovereigne Lord William the third King of England and in the year of our Lord Christ one thousand seven hundred

Gyles Heysham signed sealed and delivered by the testator Giles Heysham and by him published and declared to be his last will in the presence of us (the name Heysham being first inserted in the Margin and the word my interlined)
Fred. Wingfield, John Briot, servants to Mr. Samuel Clarke junr in [Minteing] Lane Witnesses Seigned, Attorney att Billingsgate.
The following appears to be an Addendum.
Item. I give to the Towne of Lancaster One hundred pounds. [initialed] J.B., F.W., V.S.
Item. I give to my Coz. Mrs. Ann Thornton ffifty pounds and doe revoke the Legacy's above named [i.e. ten pounds for mourning], to the parish of St. Dunstane in the East ffifty pounds, and to [blank] Nickolson son of Richard Nickolson fifty pounds. [Lacking] this second [xbesr] one thousand seven hundred and two I have razed them out by my owne hand as witness my hand and seale the day and date hereof

Gyles Heysham. Witness George [Bearessoft], James Dover."
The will was proved, but the language in the probate was latin and that is just too hard to make out. However, it was clear that Robert Heysham took administration of the will. Note how careful Giles was in bequething money to his sister, Anne Carter. Money for her children was given to Giles' brother, Robert, to manage, even though both of the children's parents were living. At another point the funds to be given to Anne were noted to be "in trust only for her children." The money given to the children of sisters Hester and Elizabeth were not treated this way. This was probably because Anne's husband, Robert, was known to be a poor manager of both his money and his business, see above.

Another interesting aspect of this will is that while Giles bequethed money to his brothers, Robert and William, along with their wives and children, he did not do so for his sisters, remembering only their children. I suppose this was because his sisters' husbands were responsible for them.

Gyles revoked the ten pound legacies to Mr. Edmond Thornton, Mrs. Ann Bullough and Mrs. Margaret Bullough two years after the original document. Had they died?

The will does make clear that Robert was the leader amongst the brothers. He got the bulk of the proceeds, after Giles' two daughters, plus he was given custody of the girls.

People Mentioned in Heysham Wills

Walter Scott, esq, was mentioned in the wills of both William and Gyles Heysham. Honor Scott was his daughter. William's will implies that he was living in Barbados. I have a "Walter Scott, merchant in Kelso, who seems to have been living in Newcastle at that time [1695)" - from "An Album of Scottish Families, 1694-96: Being the First Installment of George Home's Diary,..." by Helen M. Kelsall, George Home, Roger Keith Kelsall. Walter Scott, Merchant of London, had his will proved on 14 March 1752.

Island people: [blank] Nickolson son of Richard Nickolson.

Historical Timeline: Reign of Kings
1702-1714 Anne

Sister and heir of Mary and daughter of James II. She died without issue.

In 1704 the Duke of Marlborough, John Churchill, defeated the army of Louis XIV at the battle of Blenheim. His many victories over the French crippled the power of the Sun King in his final years on the throne and restored the balance of power in Europe.

Giles' children were,
(20) Elizabeth Heysham (1691)
(20) Barbara Heysham (1695)
(20) Gyles Heysham (1698)

(20) Elizabeth Heysham (1691)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635) (19) Geyles Heesham (1660)

Elizabeth was christened on 22 November 1691 in Saint Michael, Barbados, Caribbean, "Elizabeth: ye dau of Mr. Gyles & Mrs. Barbara Heysham" - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800." She was the daugher and heiress of Gyles Heysham, esq. of Stagenhoe, Hertfsfordshire. Her mother died when she was 8 years old and her father died when she was only 11. She was known as Elizabeth Anne Barbara Heysham in at least one source.

The scenario, as I see it, is that after the death of her father she moved in with her uncle Robert, below, who had a country house in Hertfordshire. As the family fortunes rose Elizabeth’s uncles cast around for a suitable match for her amongst the Hertfordshire gentry. I imagine they let it be known that, in addition to a substantial inheritance from her father, 4000£ plus properties, she might expect to bring an additional dowry supplied by her uncles. The Heysham brothers were not only successful merchant traders, but members of Parliament and Robert was an Alderman of the city, posts that were probably earned at great cost. As such their niece would be at least marginally acceptable to an aristocracy perhaps in need of an infusion of cash (much like the titled English families of the 19th and 20th centuries who married American heiresses). Elizabeth succeeded, I expect far beyond her uncles’ hopes, and married William Robinson, the second son of William Robinson Sr., esq. of Guersfelt, the heir to the Lytton name and lands. See the Lytton descent, below.

William Robinson’s grandfather, Colonel John Robinson, fought with with Oliver Cromwell in 1644, and the family claimed a direct descendent of the Tudors via Sir Owen Tudor's sister. William assumed the Lytton surname upon inheriting from his cousin Lytton Strode.

The Lytton Connection

There are at least three connections between the Heysham and Lytton families.

Mary Harrison, the great-grandaughter of Thomas Harrison and Jane Heysham, of Highfield, married (18) Sir William Lytton of Knebworth, the eldest son and heir of Sir Rowland Lytton. He died in 1704/5, dsp. The estate then devolved to Lytton Strode who also dsp. The estate then passed to William Robinson.

Elizabeth Heysham, the daughter of Geyles, married (20) William Robinson, who inherited the Lytton name and estates.

Susan Hall, the grand-daughter of Hester Heysham and Hugh Barker, married (21) Fitz-William Barrington, the great-great-grandson of (16/17) William Lytton and Anne Slaney via their daugther, Dorothy, who married (18) Sir John Barrington.

The Barringtons also played this game. Ruth Barrington, the daughter of Sir Francis Barrington, married an earlier William Lytton, while Joan, the daughter of Rowland Lytton, married Sir Thomas Barrington, though they had no children.

The "Vicar-General Marriage Licence Allegations" lists a Lytton – Heysham license date of 27 October 1712. Elizabeth would have been not quite 21 years old. The marriage took place at Knebworth House, the ancestral seat. Alternatively, I have records showing that the marriage occurred on 28 October 1712 at Saint Mary At Hill, London, England. Perhaps they married twice to accomodate friends in London. From the British Archives:

"Settlement on the marriage of William Robinson Lytton and Elizabeth Heysham, date: 24 & 25 October 1712." [Note: When the spouses conclude marriage, each spouse gets a marital right to the property of the other spouse. The spouses can, either before the conclusion of the marriage or during the marriage, execute a marriage settlement. In the marriage settlement the spouses can agree that neither or one has a matrimonial right to the property of the other. The marital right may be excluded in full or in part. The marriage settlement can for example stipulate that a spouse has no matrimonial right to certain property belonging to the other spouse, such a farm obtained as inheritance. The marriage settlement can also stipulate that a spouse has a matrimonial right to property to which he/she would have no right under a previous settlement.]

"Lease for a year by William Robinson Lytton of Knebworth, esquire, younger son of William Robinson of Upper Gwersilt, Denbigh, esquire, and devisee of Lytton Lytton late of Knebworth, esquire, to Robert Heysham of Stagenhoe, esquire, and William Heysham the elder of Charlton, Kent, esquire, brother of the above."

"Release and settlement between William Robinson Lytton, 1st, Elizabeth Heysham, spinster, niece of Robert Heysham, 2nd, Robert Heysham and William Heysham 3rd, Christopher Towers of Iver, Buckingham, gentleman, Robert Atkins of London, draper, and William Dixon of Lincoln's Inn, Middlesex, gentleman, 4th, and Humphrey Morris of London, merchant, William Heysham the younger, only son of William Heysham the elder, William Robinson, father of William Robinson Lytton, and George Shackerley of Lower Gwersilt, Denbigh, 5th, of the manor of Knebworth, the manor house and New Park there, and the advowson of the church of Knebworth; the manors of Letchworth, Hanchets, Mardleybury, Broxbourne otherwise Cannix, Halfhide and Homeleys, and the advowson of the church of Letchworth; and property in Knebworth, Letchworth, Datchworth, Stevenage, Codicote, Hitchin, Graveley, Shephall, Chesfield, Little Wymondley and Welwyn including Rye End Farm, Knebworth, Fair Lane Farm and Canwicks Farm, Stevenage, Burley Farm, Letchworth, Willhouse or White Lyon formerly called Dryeers, Graveley, and Bromebarnes, Stevenage. Also the manors or reputed manors of Anstey otherwise Anstey ad Castrum and lands in Hertford and Essex, and of Stotfold and lands in Stotfold, Bedford."
This appears to have been clarification between the Lytton's and Heysham's of what lands in and around Stagenhoe constituted Elizabeth's share. I believe the problem with Stagenhoe was that the brothers, Giles, Robert & William, had bought it together, pooling their resources, and here William Robinson was renouncing his marriage share. I say "renouncing" because when, later, Elizabeth contested the will of Robert Heysham Jr., which gave Stagenhoe to Giles and Robert Heysham, her case was found to be without merit.

There was a further Agreement, in the "Title deeds and estate papers of the Lytton family of Knebworth House, Knebworth," dated 16 April 1718,

"Between William Robinson Lytton of Knebworth, esq, and Robert Heysham of Stagenhoe, esq, (who survived William Heysham the elder, late of Charlton, Kent) to revoke a marriage settlement of 25 Oct 1712, and limit the uses as under:
Property in Herts and Beds to the use of Robert Heysham in trust to secure an annuity to Bridget Lytton.
Signatures: W. Robinson Lytton (seal) Robert Heysham (seal)"
Bridget was the widow of Lytton Strode-Lytton.

In Hertfordshire there is an urn, probably part of the Lytton mortuary at St. Mary's church, with the Lytton arms "quartering the fret, and on a shield of pretence the anchor, and in chief 3 . . . [the arms of William Heysham, the ellipse is in the original document]" and an inscription.

"In spem beatae resurrectionis,
sub hoc marmore conduntur
reliquiae
Gulielmi Robinson Lytton Strode, arm.
uxorem duxit filiam
cohaeredemque Gulielmi Heysham, arm.
Ex ea genuit liberos
tres filios quatuorque filias:
tres e vita excessere; relictis
Elizabetha, Anna, Barbara,
cum Johanne natu minimo,
Ab hac vita ad meliorem emigravit
decimo nono Novembris,
anno aet. 44 sal. 1732"

- from "Hertfordshire 1731 to 1800: As Recorded in the Gentleman's Magazine" by Arthur Jones
Freely translated as,
"In hope of the blessed resurrection,
Under this marble, to be led forth,
Lie the remains of
William Robinson Lytton Strode, arm.
And his Wife, duchess, and daughters
Possessed of the arms of William Heysham
Who begat children,
Three sons, four daughters:
Three life departed (William, Fanny, Lytton); left behind are
Elizabetha, Anna, Barbara,
With John by birth the youngest.
Left this side for a better life
19th November
At the age of 44, 1732"

William Robinson-Lytton was Sheriff of Hertsfordshire. He died in 1732 and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son. Elizabeth died and was buried on 10 August 1737 in Knebworth, Hertfordshire, England.

The Lytton family

Sir Robert Lytton fought with Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, after which he served the new King Henry VII as under-treasurer and close confidant. He bought Knebworth manor in 1490 and in about 1500 began to build on to a fifteenth-century gatehouse a new four-sided house enclosing a central courtyard, now called Knebworth House.

(11) Sir Robert de Lytton

Of Lytton. Comptroller of the Household to Henry IV; Governor Bolsover Castle; Grand Agister of the Forests of the Peak. Fought with King Henry VII at Battle of Bosworth, made Privy Councillor. Married Agnes Hotoft, the daughter of John Hotoft, Sheriff of London.

(12) Sir Robert de Lytton
(11) Sir Robert de Lytton

Died in 1504. Under-Treasurer of the Exchequer to Henry VII; Keeper of the Great Wardrobe; member of the Privy Council; Knight of the Bath. One of King Henry VII favoutites. In 1492 he bought Knebworth House, which is still in the family. Governor of the Castle of Boulogne. He married Elizabeth Andrews, the daughter of John Andrews, of Weston.

(13) William De Lytton (c1500)
(11) Sir Robert de Lytton (12) Sir Robert de Lytton

Of Knebworth. Governor of the castle of Bullogne, France; Sheriff of the counties of Hertford and Essex. He married Audrey, the daughter of Sir Philip Booth of Shrubland Hall.

(14) Roland Lytton (c1530)
(11) Sir Robert de Lytton (12) Sir Robert de Lytton (13) William De Lytton (c1500)

Second son of William. He died in 1582 Of Knebworth. Govornor of Bolougne. He married first Margaret, daughter of John Tate of Calais. Second he married Anne, daughter of George Carleton of Brightwell.

(15) Sir Rowland Lytton (1561)
(11) Sir Robert de Lytton (12) Sir Robert de Lytton (13) William De Lytton (c1500) (14) Roland Lytton (c1530)

He was born in 1561 and died in 1615. Of Knebworth. Knighted in 1603 by King James I. Commander of Hertfordshire county militia 1588 at Tilbury, assembled to meet the Spanish threat on land; later Captain of Queen Elizabeth I’s Band of Pensioners. In 1588 the Queen spent a night at Knebworth. He married Anne, the daughter of Oliver St. John, First Lord Bletsoe.

(16) Sir William Lytton (1589)
(11) Sir Robert de Lytton (12) Sir Robert de Lytton (13) William De Lytton (c1500) (14) Roland Lytton (c1530) (15) Sir Rowland Lytton (1561)

He was born in 1589 and died in 1660. A member of the Long Parliament. Entered Parliament in 1624, one of the commissioners sent to treat with King Charles I at Oxford in 1644. Later opposed the policy of Cromwell and was one of the 40 members of Parliament who were imprisoned in the "Hell-Hole", a cellar under the House of Commons, by Colonel Pride. Of Knebworth. He first married Anne, the daughter of Stephen Slaney of Norton, Salop - Note: his father was Sir Stephen Slaney, skinner, Sheriff in 1584 and Lord Mayor of London in 1594. William and Anne's daughter, Dorothy, married Sir John Barrington, third Baronet. William second married Ruth, the daughter of Sir Francis Barrington of Barrington Hall.

His sister, Judith, was the second wife of Sir Thomas Barrington, second Baronet.

(17) Sir Rowland Lytton (1615)
(11) Sir Robert de Lytton (12) Sir Robert de Lytton (13) William De Lytton (c1500) (14) Roland Lytton (c1530) (15) Sir Rowland Lytton (1561) (16) Sir William Lytton (1589)

He was born in 1615 and died in 1674. Of Knebworth. One of representatives of the county of Hertford in the healing Parliament of Charles II. He married Judith, the daughter of Sir Humphrey Edwards.

(18) Sir William Lytton (c1640)
(11) Sir Robert de Lytton (12) Sir Robert de Lytton (13) William De Lytton (c1500) (14) Roland Lytton (c1530) (15) Sir Rowland Lytton (1561) (16) Sir William Lytton (1589) (17) Sir Rowland Lytton (1615)

He married Mary, the daughter of Sir John Harrison and great-grandaughter of Thomas Harrison and Jane Heysham. Of Knebworth. High Sheriff and M.P. from Hertford. Mary died and William married Phillippa Kelyng, the daughter of Sir John Kelyng. William died on 14 January 1705. He had no children and was succeeded by his great-nephew. Lytton Strode.

(18) Judith Lytton (1639)
(11) Sir Robert de Lytton (12) Sir Robert de Lytton (13) William De Lytton (c1500) (14) Roland Lytton (c1530) (15) Sir Rowland Lytton (1561) (16) Sir William Lytton (1589) (17) Sir Rowland Lytton (1615)

Born in 1639 and died in 1662 of consumption. Her second husband was Sir Nicholas Strode.

(19) Sir George Strode
(18) Sir Nicholas Strode

Died in 1707. He married Margaret, the daughter of Colonel John Robinson of Gwerslyllt, in 1687. The Colonel fought with Oliver Cromwell in 1644.

(20) Lytton Strode Lytton
(18) Sir Nicholas Strode (19) Sir George Strode

He assumed the Lytton surname, becoming Lytton Lytton, as a condition of inheriting the estate. He d.s.p. and was succeeded by his first 1st cousin, William Robinson [Lytton].

(19) William Robinson
(18) John Robinson

Of Guersfelt or Gwersyllt. The Robinson's were Welsh, descendents of the old Norrey's family. He was the brother of Margaret Robinson, wife of Sir George Strode. He married Anne Myddelton. Per "stirnet," a usually reliable source, "Commoners identifies William's wife as Elizabeth Lytton, niece of Sir William Lytton of Knebworth, but that appears to be in error." He claimed a direct descent from Sir Owen Tudor's sister.

(20) William Robinson Lytton (c1690)
(18) John Robinson (19) William Robinson

He assumed the Lytton surname upon inheriting from his cousin Lytton Strode in 1710. He married Elizabeth Heysham, the daughter of Giles Heysham, on 28 October 1712. Sheriff of Hertfordshire. He died on 18 November 1732 ["William Robinson Lytton of Knebworth), was drowned at sea on June 24, 1739" - frm "Lord Chancellor Jeffreys and the Stuart Cause: by George Williams Keeton]. He and his heir, John, were known to be "gay, spendthrift, idle roysterers." There is a story that when the Pretender, Charles Edward, invaded, William, an unreconstructed Jacobite, wanted to join him, but Elizabeth locked him in the stable, where he had gone to get his horse, until the Pretender's cause was lost - and William's property saved. - from "The Life, Letters and Literary Remains of Edward Bulwer, Lord Lytton." In addition to Knebworth they kept a house in London. William's children were:

(21) Barbara Robinson Lytton (c1712)
(18) John Robinson (19) William Robinson (20) William Robinson Lytton (c1690)

The eldest daughter. Most descents show her birth as 3 April 1710, but her parents weren't married until 28 October 1712. She married William Warburton, esq. of Yarrow, Queen's county, Ireland. This was a younger branch of the ancient Warburton family, baronets of Ardley, in Cheshire.

(22) Richard Warburton Lytton (1745)
(21) William Warburton

He assumed the Lytton surname upon death of his uncle, John Robinson Lytton, esq. An eccentric scholar, he produced a Hebrew drama which he burnt because he couldn't find actors with a sufficient knowledge of the language. He married Elizabeth Joddrell in 1768 and separated from her soon after in 1773. Born in 1752, she was the daughter of Richard Paul Joddrell of Lewknor. She was a lively girl of 16 when married who 'never opened a book.' Richard died in 1810.

(23) Elizabeth Barbara Lytton (1773)
(21) William Warburton (22) Richard Warburton Lytton (1752)

She was born in 1773 and died on 18 December 1843. The sole heir, she married General William Earl Bulwer of Wood Dalling and Heydon Hall on 21 June 1798.

The author, Edward George Bulwer-Lytton (1803-1873), was her third son and heir to the estate. It was he that wrote the infamous opening lines, "It was a dark and stormy night . . .," from his novel "Paul Clifford," of 1830. This is widely held to be the worst opening sentence of a novel in the English language. In full, it is,

"It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents - except at occasional intervals, when it was checked by a violent gust of wind which swept up the streets (for it is in London that our scene lies), rattling along the house-tops, and fiercely agitating the scanty flame of the lamps that struggled against the darkness."
It is the basis of a bad authors contest. He was one of the great Victorian novelists and is more justly remembered for his novel, "The Last Days of Pompei," which is still read today.

(21) William Robinson Lytton (c1715)
(18) John Robinson (19) William Robinson (20) William Robinson Lytton (c1690)

He died in 1724.

(21) Elizabeth Robinson Lytton (c1715)
(18) John Robinson (19) William Robinson (20) William Robinson Lytton (c1690)

She married a William Robinson; perhaps a cousin. She died d.s.p.

(21) Fanny Robinson Lytton (c1715)
(18) John Robinson (19) William Robinson (20) William Robinson Lytton (c1690)

She died in 1730.

(21) Anne-Jane Robinson Lytton (c1715)
(18) John Robinson (19) William Robinson (20) William Robinson Lytton (c1690)

She died unmarried.

(21) Lytton Robinson Lytton (c1715)
(18) John Robinson (19) William Robinson (20) William Robinson Lytton (c1690)

He died in 1717.

(21) John Robinson Lytton (1724)
(18) John Robinson (19) William Robinson (20) William Robinson Lytton (c1690)

The 1st surviving son and heir, he was born on 30 September 1724. He married Leonora, the daughter of Humphrey Brereton of Borras, Derbyshire on 12 April 1744. The Sheriff of Hertfordshire 1758-1759. He died d.s.p. in 1762 and was succeeded by his nephew, Richard Warburton, below. See the following from the British Archives,

Assignment "By Robert Atkins of London, draper, to Thomas Penny of St George-the-Martyr, Middlesex, apothecary, at the direction of John Robinson Lytton of Knebworth, esquire, son and heir of William Robinson Lytton late of the same, deceased, by Elizabeth his wife, also deceased; and of William Warburton of the Middle Temple, London, esquire, and Barbara his wife, and Lawrence Williams of London, merchant, and Elizabeth his wife, widow of William Robinson of Upper Gwersilt, Denbigh, (Barbara and Elizabeth being two surviving daughters of William Robinson Lytton), of a mortgage on Fairlane and Whomely [Homeley] Farms, Stevenage, and Mardley-bury Farm and a farm at Woolmer Green, Welwyn, made in connexion with the settlement on the marriage of William Robinson Lytton and Elizabeth Heysham, 25 October, 1712."

Knebworth House

At the left is Knebworth House as it was when Elizabeth Heysham lived there. This was the ancestral seat of the Lytton family in Hertfordshire county, just west of Saint Paul’s Walden. Note that her brother, Robert, lived at his estate of Stagenhoe in Saint Paul's Walden. Knebworth has been owned by the family for 500 years. Originally a red-brick Tudor ramble built around a quadrangle, it remained virtually unaltered until the nineteenth century.















In 1810, Mrs. Elizabeth Bulwer-Lytton, finding the building ‘old fashioned and too large’, demolished three sides of the quadrangle, including the medieval gatehouse, part of which she re-erected as a lodge in the park. Her son, the novelist Edward Bulwer-Lytton, who succeeded her in 1843, turned the house into a Gothic palace, with domes, turrets, gargoyles and stained glass. In 1878, Robert, 1st Earl of Lytton, commissioned architect John Lee to add a third story to part of the building. When the 2nd Earl, Victor, and his wife Pamela came to live at Knebworth in 1908, changes in taste were again taking place in the realm of art and fashion. They decided to make extensive alterations to the interior of the house and were fortunate in being able to seek advice from a brother-in-law, later to become famous as Sir Edwin Lutyens, designer of the city of New Delhi, India.

See also Knebworth House web page.


(20) Barbara Heysham (1695)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635) (19) Geyles Heesham (1660)

The daughter of Gyles Heysham, and named for her mother, she was christened on 10 October 1695 in Saint Michael, Barbados, Caribbean, "Barbara ye dau of Mr. Gyles & Barbara Heysham" - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800." She was only 4 years old when her mother died and 7 when her father passed away. She was raised by her uncle, Robert Heysham. In 1712 her sister, Elizabeth, married into the Lytton family of Knebworth.

Barbara Heysham married Henry Perrot on 4 July 1717 at Saint Mary At Hill, London, England - from "Parish Registers, 1558-1850, Church of England, St. Mary at Hill's Church (London)." The church of St Mary At Hill [Street], in Eastcheap, was rebuilt by Christopher Wren in 1670-76 after the Great Fire. St Andrew Hubbard was united with St Mary at Hill in 1670. Note that Barbara's uncle and guardian, Robert Heysham, lived in St Andrew Hubbard parish at this time.

This marriage would have been an appropriate one for the rising Heysham family. Henry Perrot, Esq., of Northby, Oxon, was a Member of Parliament, and the only son of landed gentry. Unfortunately, Barbara Heysham died soon after. "On Saturday, I5th instant, died of a Consumption, Madame Parrott, wife of ye Squire of that Name, a Gentleman of 2000l. per annum, & Niece to Rob' Heysham . . ." - from Publications of the Oxford Historical Society.

26 February 1718. "On Saturday, 15th instant, died of a Consumption, Madame Parrott [sic], wife of ye Squire of that Name, a Gentleman of 2000l. per annum, & Niece of Robt Heysham, Esq., a Member of Parliamt for the City of London, after six Months Marriage. She was buried at Norleigh [Northleigh] on Saturday Night last, Feb. 22. I met the Herse returning to London on Sunday Morning, between Islip and Beckley . . ." - from "Remarks and Collections of Thomas Hearne" by Thomas Hearne, Herbert Edward Salter, Charles Edward Doble, David Watson Rannie
Barbara had no children and in 1719 Henry remarried.

The Perrot Family

The Perrots of Northleigh, who sometimes spelled their name Parrott, arose during the reign of Henry VIII.

(17) Richard Perrot (c1570)

The second son of Leonard Perrot and Dorothy Skipwith. He married Winifred Luxmore.

(18) James Perrot (1607)
(17) Richard Perrot (c1570)

Of Amersham, Bucks, of Northleigh, Oxford, and Fawler, Berkshire. The eldest son of Richard Perrot. He married Anne, daughter and coheir of George Dale, D.C.L., Somerset. He died at Northleigh on 8 December 1687. His children were William, James, and Charles.

(19) James Perrot (c1638)
(17) Richard Perrot (c1570) (18) James Perrot (1607)

His elder brother, William, dying without issue, the estates fell to James. Of the Middle Temple. Lord of the manor of Brisingham, Norfolk. He married Anna. His children were Henry and Catherine, who married James Musgrave. James died in 1724.

(20) Henry Perrot (1689)
(17) Richard Perrot (c1570) (18) James Perrot (1607) (19) James Perrot (c1638)

Of North Leigh [Northleigh], Oxfordshire. Henry Perrot was born on 29 September 1689, the eldest son of James Perrot and Anna Dawtry. He first married Barbara Heysham in 1717, who died six months later. D.C.L. in 1733.

On 2 April 1719 Henry married Martha, the daughter of Brereton Bouchier, Esq., and Catherine, the daugher and heiress of Sir James Brydges, 3rd Baronet of Wilton Castle and 8th Baron Chandos. Martha inherited the Barnsley Park estate, near Cirencester in Glouscester. Henry was a member of the coterie of Sir James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos, and Martha's uncle. He was known as "something of a dilettante" - from "The Cirencester Area: Proceedings of the 134th Summer Meeting of the Royal Archaeological Society" by Nicholas H Cooper.

Henry was a Jacobite Member of Parliament, represented the county of Oxford from 1721 to 1740, in the Parliaments of George I and George II. Henry died in Paris on 4 February 1740 and was buried at North Leigh on 6 July 1740. He was 50 years old. Henry and Martha had two daughters.


Note that a John Perrot and Mary his wife had a plantation on Barbados. They died in 1714. Could the Heysham-Perrot connection been first made on the island?


(20) Gyles Heysham (1698)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635) (19) Geyles Heesham (1660)

He was christened on 27 May 1698 in Saint Dunstan In The East, London, London, England. He died and was buried in London on 1 August 1698 at the church of St. Dunstan in the East.

Saint Dunstan in the East

The original church was built in 1382, but was partially destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. Rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, it was one of his most structurally adventurous works, with a spire rising daringly on four free-standing flying buttresses. The combination of beauty and strength made this church one of his personal favorites.

While German bombs gutted the rest of the church in 1941, the steeple continues to stand. The interior of the church was left as an empty shell after the blitz and has now been transformed into a green oasis, busy on weekday lunchtimes with office workers eating sandwiches and Big Macs, but eerily quiet at weekends. Located in the St. Dunston’s Hill district, between Lower Thames street and Great Tower street.


(19) Hester Hyshame (1662)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635)

"Esther Heisham fa. Egidij [Gyles] . . . 5 January 1662," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster. This was the Hester who was a daughter of Gyles and Elizabeth Thornton. She was their third daughter.

Hester Heysham married Hugh Barker, esq., of Great Harwood, Bucks, on 6 May 1697. She was clearly no blushing-bride, being at 35 years old. Hugh was educated at the New College, Oxford and became a lawyer of the Inner Temple. He was the son of the noted Dr. Hugh Barker, Dean of the Venerable Court of Arches in London, and Mary Jones. This was Hugh's second marriage. First he had married Elizabeth Whitehead, on 6 March 1680, at the age of 28. She had died in 1696. Hugh's father, the Doctor, had also was married twice, his second wife being Joanna Goddard.

Venerable Court of Arches

The provincial ecclesiastical or consistory court of York. These They were established by a charter of King William I of England, and still exist today, although since about the middle of the 19th century consistory courts have been shorn of much of their importance. Before the year 1858 consistory courts exercised jurisdiction (concurrently with the courts of their respective provinces) over matrimonial and probate matters. This jurisdiction was taken away by the Court of Probate Act 1857 and the Matrimonial Causes Act 1857. They had also corrective jurisdiction over the crimes of clerks, but this was abrogated by the Church Discipline Act 1840. The principal business of consistory courts is now the dispensing of faculties faculties, although they also hear the trial of clergy (below the rank of bishop) accused of immoral acts or misconduct (under the Clergy Discipline Act 1892). The court usually sits in the church which is the subject of the faculty application, or in the chapter house or cathedral of the diocese. Counsel and solicitors may represent parties.

In the local chapel in Great Harwood is an achievement of arms and a citation which commemorate the two Hughs, father and son, and their four wives,

Perenni memoriae sacrum
Hug. Barker, Med. Doc. peritissimi
Et Hugonis, filii ejus unici
Utriusque duabus sponsis.
Felicitati
Maria (Patris Prima)
Joanna, denata Aug. 28, 1667 (Patris Secunda)
Elizabetha, denata Jul. 10, 1696 (Filii Prima)
Esthera
[Heysham] superstite [surviving](Filii Secunda)
Qui corpora sua terris
Animas caelis reddiderunt
Pater Jun. 19, 1687
Filius Mar. 25, 1704
Hoc monumentum posuit Ric. Barker
De hac parochia, Arm., consanguinitatis
et pietatis ero
Nov. 19, 1713

- from "Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica. Edited by Joseph Jackson Howard. Third series. Volume 3"
Hugh and Hester probably had a daughter, Elizabeth, circa 1700 and another, Jane, in 1703. Hugh died on 25 March 1704.

Great Harwood

Harwood is in Buckinghamshire, an inland county northwest of London. It is bounded on the north and north-west by the county of Northampton, on the east and north-east by the counties of Hertford and Bedford, on the south-east by the county of Middlesex, on the south-west by the county of Berks, and on the west by the county of Oxford.


The Barker Family of Great Harwood, Bucks

The name Barker is generally believed by family historians to be derived from the Anglo-Saxon word beorac, meaning shephard. The Barker Arms for the families of Newbury and Great Harwood were: Argent, three bears' heads erased, gules, muzzled or, in chief as many torteuxes. Crest: a bear's head erased per pale or and azure, muzzled of the first, between two wings, the dexter azure, the sinister gold. Seems kind of showy.

(15) William Barker

Of Staaksley [Stokesley, Yorkshire]. He married Joan, the daughter of William Carlille. The latter was related to Christopher Carlill, the Norroy King of Arms who clearly gave William's son, Christopher, his start. The Norroy King of Arms was one of the senior officer of arms in the Royal College of Arms.

(16) Sir Christopher Barker (c1490?)
(15) William Barker

Of Newbury. Robert's elder brother. Chrisopher started his heraldic career as the private officer of arms of Charles Brandon, Viscount Lisle & Duke of Suffolk. Barker was made Lisle pursuivant in 1513 and Suffolk Herald in 1517. He is known to have accompanied his employer on journeys to France in 1514 and 1515. On 1 November 1522 Barker was made a royal officer of arms in the College of Arms as Richmond herald. In June of 1536 he was promoted to Norroy King of Arms, and was quickly promoted to Garter Principal King of Arms on 15 July. As Garter King of Arms, Barker helped to organize ceremonies like the baptism of Prince Edward in 1537, the funeral of Queen Jane Seymour in the same year, the proclamation of Henry VIII as King of Ireland in 1541, and the funeral of Henry and the coronation of Edward. When King Henry invaded France in person in 1544, Barker had a prominent place in front of the king's banner. Shortly before Henry's death Barker's evidence was crucial when Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, was condemned to death for quartering his arms with those of Edward the Confessor. Knight of the Bath and Principal King at Arms.

Though married three times, his sons predeceased him. He died on 4 January 1550. His nephew, Edward Barker [a son of Richard Barker?], aged 18, succeeded to his property. Some say that Christopher and Robert Barker, printers to Elizabeth and James, were his great-nephews, but I've not been able to prove that.

(16) Richard Barker
(15) William Barker

The second son of William Barker.

(17) Edward Barker (1532)
(15) William Barker (16) Richard Barker

He inherited his Uncle Christopher's estate in 1550.

(16) Robert Barker (c1530)
(15) William Barker

Of Culworth, Northamptonshire. William's third son.

"No family has probably been more favoured as "Founder's Kin" than that of Barker, ever since, by the marrige, about 1562, of Robert Barker with Mary Danvers, they acquired that position. Besides the eleven persons of that surname (four named Hugh, three named Robert, and one either Anthony, Richard, Thomas, or William) so admitted to Winchester College in right of that descent between 1576 to 1708 . . ." - from "Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica" edited by Joseph Jackson Howard.
Mary was the daughter of William Danvers, brother of Sir John Danvers, grandfather of Heny, the last Earl of Danby, and Elizabeth, the daughter of Richard Fiennes, 4th Lord Say and Sele. Hugh Barker the elder wrote of this,
"By this marryage we claime kindred to William of Wickha The Founder of New College in Oxford and Winchester Colledge." - from "The four visitations of Berkshire made and taken by Thomas Benolte, Clarnceuc, anno 1532" by the College of Arms

(17) Robert Barker Jr. (1566)
(15) William Barker (16) Robert Barker (c1530)

He was born in Culworth, Northamptonshire in about 1566, the third son of Robert and Mary. Esq., of Great Harwood, Bucks. He married Mary, the daughter of William Smith, Doctor of Law. Robert died on 6 July 1636 at the age of 70. Mary died on 26 November 1653, aged 75. Their eldest son was William, a Doctor of Divinity and Rector of Hardwick, Bucks. Their eldest daughter, Mary, married William Hearst of New Sarum, Doctor of Physic.

(18) Hugh Barker (c1600)
(15) William Barker (16) Robert Barker (c1530) (17) Robert Barker Jr. (1566)

Of Newberry, Berks. The second son of Robert and Mary. H.S.E., Hugo Barker, Legum Romanorum [Doctor of Roman Law]. Doctor of Physic and Dean of the Venerable Court of Arches in London. I suppose that means he was both a lawyer and a doctor.

He married Mary Jones. Second he married Joanna, the daughter of Edward Goddard, of East Woddbury, Hants., and by her mother, coheir to John Croker of Battisford, Gloucestershire. On 22 March 1664 Hugh presented his genealogy, back to "Robert, my Grandfather, the brother to Sir Chrisopher with distinction," and his claim to use the Barker arms. Hugh died on 19 June 1687.

(19) Hugh Barker Jr. (1660)
(15) William Barker (16) Robert Barker (c1530) (17) Robert Barker Jr. (1566) (18) Hugh Barker (c1610)

Esq., of Great Harwood, Bucks. He was the son of Hugh and his second wife, Joanna. Educated at the New College, Oxford, he became a lawyer of the Inner Temple. He first married Elizabeth Whitehead on 6 March 1680, at the age of 28. She died in 1696. They had children, Joan, Celia [?], and Richard. Hugh second married Hester, the daughter of Giles Heysham and Elizabeth Thornton, on 6 May 1697. Their daughter, Jane, was born in 1703. Hugh died on 25 March 1704.

Hester was still living in 1720 when she was mentioned in the will of her niece, Elizabeth Heysham, the daughter of William Heysham of Barbados.

(20) Elizabeth Barker (1699)

She was born on 4 January 1699 and baptized three days later. She was named the daughter of Hester Heysham Barker in the will of her uncle, Robert Heysham of Stagenhoe, and that of her cousin, William Heysham Jr. of Greenwich. She was also mentioned in the will of her cousin, Elizabeth Heysham, the sister of William Heysham Jr. On the Thornton-Heysham page I have an Elizabeth Barker, of Lilley, Herts, a gentlewoman, associated with Fitz-William Barrington and Robert Thornton Heysham, circa 1753. That, however, is not our Elizabeth, who died unmarried in 1723.

(20) Hester Barker (1702)

She was born on 23 October 1702 and baptized two days later. She died on 7 August 1705 and was buried in St. Paul's Walden Church, in Hertfordshire.

(20) Jane Barker (1703)

Jane was born and baptized on 3 October 1703. She married Matthew Hall, a "woollen draper in ye Strand," of Horsham, Sussex on 19 December 1721. She was named the daughter of Hester Heysham Barker and wife of Mr. Hall in the will of her uncle, Robert Thornton of Stagenhoe, and of her cousin, William Heysham Jr. of Greenwich. Jane and Matthew had a daughter, Susan, in 1722. Another source claims that her name was Jane, and that she was born in 1724. Might there have been two daughters? There was also a mention of a son, William, but since he is otherwise absent from the records I will assume that he died young.

The Hall Family

Mathew Hall (1664)

4 June 1690. Mathew Hall, of St Andrews, Holborn, London, Gent., Bachelor, about 26, married Mrs. Elizabeth Herrys, spinster, about 18, with consent of her father, of Edmondton, merchant; alleged by William Charles, Parish Clerk of St Andrews; at St Andrews, Holborn. - from "Publications of the Harleian Society"


(21) Jane Hall (1722)

She was born on 24 October 1722 and baptized in November. Sometimes referred to as Susan. On 24 February 1750 Fitz-William Barrington, of Lilley, Herts, widower, married Jane Hall, of St. Clement Danes, Middlesex, spinster. They were married in Westminster Abbey, in London. He was the younger son of Sir John Barrington, sixth Baronet, of Barrington Hall, Essex, by Susan daughter of George Draper, of Hitchin, Herts, Esq. He succeeded his elder brother as eight Baronet in 1776 and died on 24 September 1792 in his 85th year. His first wife was Sarah, the daughter of Thomas Meades, Captain RN, who died s.p. Susan was his second wife, the daughter of Matthew Hall, Esq.

Fitz-William died on 24 September 1792, at the age of 84 at Great James Street, London. Susan died in Great James street on 13 April 1797, aged 75. Their two sons, John and Fitzwilliam, succeeded successively to the baronetcy, which became extinct on the death of the latter in 1833. - from "The Marriage, Baptismal, and Burial Registers of the Collegiate Church Or Abbey of St. Peter,..." by Joseph Lemuel Chester.

The Baronet Family of Barrington

The family likes to trace their origins to Barentone, the Saxon Baron of Wegon who served Emme, the wife of King Ethelred, the Redeless. Be that as it may, the family does have a long history of land ownership in the region of Essex.

(14) John Barrington (c1500)

He married Elizabeth, the daughter of Thomas Bonham. John was Thomas' ward.

(15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530)
(14) John Barrington (c1500)

Of Barrington Hall, Essex. Sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire. He married first Alice, the daughter of Henry Parker, Lord Morley. He married second Winifred, the daughter of Sir Henry Pole, first Lord Montagu, and Jane Neville. She was the widow of Sir Thomas Hastings. Thomas died in 1586.

(16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530)

Created the first Baronet of Barrington Hall on 29 June 1611. He married Joan, the daughter of Sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchinbrook, the aunt of the Lord Protector. Their seat was Barrington Hall, in Essex. He died in 1628. His sons were Sir Thomas, his heir, Robert, an MP, Francis, who settled in Jamaica, and John, a gentleman of Oliver's bedchamber and MP who retired to Germany.

(17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555)

The second Baronet. His first wife was Frances, the daughter of John Gobart of Coventy. His second wife was Joan, the daughter of Sir Rowland Lytton of Knebworth House [small world]. He died in 1654. By his first wife, Joan Gobert, he had sons Sir John, his heir, Oliver, and Sir Gobert, of Tofts.

(18) Sir John Barrington (1605)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555) (17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580)

The third Baronet. He was an MP. He married Dorothy, the daughter of Sir William Lytton and Anne Slaney, of Knebworth House - making his step-mother his aunt. He died in 1682. His surving sons were Thomas, who died in his father's lifetime, John, Francis and William.

(19) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1630)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555) (17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580) (18) Sir John Barrington (1605)

He married Anne, the daughter of Robert Rich, third Earl of Warwick. He predeceased his father, d.v.p. He had sons, John, his heir, Charles, his second heir, and Richard.

(20) Sir John Barrington (c1655)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555) (17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580) (18) Sir John Barrington (1605) (19) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1630)

The fourth Baronet, d.s.p.

(20) Sir Charles Barrington (c1655)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555) (17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580) (18) Sir John Barrington (1605) (19) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1630)

The fifth Baronet, d.s.p. and the title of baronet became extinct in the elder branch. His cousin, Sir John Barrington, inherited his possessions in the Isle of Wight and his sister, Ann, those in Essex.

(19) John Barrington (c1630)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555) (17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580) (18) Sir John Barrington (1605)

Sir John's second surviving son. He married Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward Hawkins of Bishop Stopford. His nephews inherited the baronetcy, but died without heirs.

(20) Sir John Barrington (c1655)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555) (17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580) (18) Sir John Barrington (1605) (19) John Barrington (c1630)

The sixth Baronet was the son of John Barrington, second surviving son of the third Baronet. He married Susan, the daughter of George Draper, of Hitchin, Hertfordshire. His sons were John, his heir, Charles, who d.s.p., and Fitz-William, his brother's heir.

(21) Sir John Barrington (c1680)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555) (17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580) (18) Sir John Barrington (1605) (19) John Barrington (c1630) (20) Sir John Barrington (c1655)

The seventh Baronet, d.s.p..

(21) Sir Fitz-William Barrington (c1680)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555) (17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580) (18) Sir John Barrington (1605) (19) John Barrington (c1630) (20) Sir John Barrington (c1655)

The eighth Baronet. He first married Sarah, the daughter of Thomas Meades, Captain Royal Navy. He second married Susan-Jane, the daughter of Matthew Hall, on 24 February 1750. The Sheriff of Hertfordshire in 1754. He inherited in 1776 and died in 1792. His sons were John and Fitzwilliam, who succeeded successively. The baronetcy became extinct on the death of the latter in 1833.

(18) Sir Gobart Barrington (c1605)
(14) John Barrington (c1500) (15) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1530) (16) Sir Francis Barrington (c1555) (17) Sir Thomas Barrington (c1580)

Of Tofts. A younger son of Sir Thomas. He married Lucy, the daughter of Sir Richard Wiseman of Torrel's Hill. His surviving sons were Colonel Thomas Barrington, his heir, and Francis. Thomas "injured his fortune" in the Civil War and requested that his brother, Francis, who was a rich merchant of Tunis, purchase it, meaning I suppose his estate. Francis married Elizabeth, the daughter of Samuel Shute, an Alderman of London, in 1681. A proviso of the marriage was that if Francis d.s.p., which he did, his brother-in-law, John Shute, would inherit. The Shutes became the Viscounts Barrington of Ardglass, who are listed on the Thornton-Heysham page.

Baronet

This title was created by King James in 1611 as means of raising money. That is, upwardly mobile members of the middle class would buy this cheapest of nobilities as a means of erasing their origins. Sir Francis was one of the first Baronets created.


(19) Robert Heisham (1663)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635)

"Robert f. Edgidij [Gyles] Heisham . . . 16 July 1663," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster - from the Lancaster Parish Register of Baptisms. "The House of Commons, 1690-1715" has a Robert Heysham, M.P., who was "baptized 16 August 1663, the second son of Giles Heysham of Lancaster, by Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Thornton of Oxcliffe, nr. Lancaster. Brother of William Heysham."

Robert was only 16 years old when his father died. From indications below I'd say the Thornton family, and especially Thomas Thornton, stepped in to provide assistance and fatherly advise.

"The old Chemist's establishment formerly on the site of the Borough Surveyor's Office, and long occupied by Mr. Edmund Dickson, was the old home of Alderman Heysham. [pg. 449]

. . .

In the same gentleman's garden [Colonel Jonathan Whalley's] is the old stone which stood over the doorway of Alderman Heysham's house [in Lancaster]. It bears letters and date as under - G. H. [superscript] E. 1680" [pg. 205]

- from "Time Honored Lancaster."
GHE is, I think, for Giles Heysham Esquire. Robert went to London in his youth and became an eminent merchant, trading principally with the West Indies in partnership with his brothers, Giles and William, who were agents on the island. "Heysham's great-grandfather had settled in Lancaster but by the 1690's Heysham had established himself as a merchant trading from London with the colonies." - from "The House of Commons 1690-1715.
"In the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century, firms usually consisted of two closely related merchants - two brothers, a father and son, or an uncle and nephew . . . Robert Heysham of London and his brother William Heysham of Barbadoes . . ." from "Oceans of Wine, Empires of Commerice - Merchants into Capitalists: Madeira Wine and the Developing Atlantic Economy, 1640-1815" by David Hancock.
"Never aspiring to be a director of a major London joint-stock company and . . . keeping his investments to a minimum, Heysham has been described as the 'epitome of the independent colonial trader.'" - from "The House of Commons 169-1715." He was also referred to as a "draper." - from "The Aldermen of the City of London, Temp. Henry III.-1908: With Notes on the Parliamentary..." by Alfred Beaven Beaven.

On 6 October 1680 Robert Heysham became a New Apprentice in the Drapers' Company, or Guild, who controlled the woollen cloth trade in the City. He was only 17. His father, Giles Heysham, was listed as deceased. His "Master" was Thomas Thorneton, of the Drapers' company. Robert's brother, Giles, had apprenticed in 1678 under Thomas Thorneton. His father, Giles Heysham, was listed as a gentleman and still living. On 8 December 1686 Robert Heysham achieved his "freedom" in the company by redemption. There are two ways to earn the freedom of the company, redemption on personal recommendation and after an interview, or patrimony, by virtue of the father being a Draper.

Robert married twice. Mary Thornton was his first wife. She was the daughter and co-heir of Edmund Thornton, draper, of London and Stagenhoe. They had no children.

In the 1690's Robert lived in St. Andrew's Parish, Billingsgate Ward, London. His property had a Tax Assessment of 10.20 pounds, and a Rental Value of 51.00 pounds. This seems to be considerable, for the time. His stock had a Tax Assessment of 3.60 pounds, and a value of 300.00 pounds.

On 28 September 1692 Robert Heysham, of the Drapers company, was assigned as Master for a new Apprentice in the company, Nicholas Bow, the son of Nicholas Bow Senior, deceased, a citizen of the Merchant Taylors company.

Mary died before 1695. In "London Inhabitants within the Walls 1695" Robert was listed as "Heysham, Rob, gent, widr, St Andrew Hubbard." I assume this was the period between the death of Mary Thornton and Robert's marriage to Jane. Note that St Mary Hill church, number 23 in the map above, was probably his church.

The end of the 17th century was a time of great commercial striving and the creation of joint stock enterprises. At the same time, however, men were loath to act without the assistance and favor of the Crown and Parliament. An example was the Bank of England, established largely in the interest of the merchants of London. The National Land Bank was an idea put forward by Robert Harley to benefit landowners in the same fashion. Two and a half million pounds were to be raised by public subscription, paying 7 percent, and half a million was to be advanced to landowners on mortgage at 3 1/2 percent. In 1696 Robert Heysham was made a director of the Land Bank. He was also made a Land Bank Commissioner, empowered to take and receive voluntary Subscriptions to the intended National Land-Bank. - from "British History Online." However, this project found little popular support and the bank died before it was born.

Robert married Jane Thornton, the daughter of Thomas Thornton, citizen and draper. Other sources claim her father was Edmund Thornton, making her a sister of Robert's first wife. I have a Robert Heysham, esquire, who married in 1697/8, in Lancaster. There was a Heysham – Thorneton marriage licence recorded by the Vicar-General, Marriage Licence Allegations, on 3 May 1697/8. I also have a notation for a Robert Higsham [sic] who married Jane Thorton [sic] on 9 June 1698 in St. Dunstan in the West, London, England. These may all refer to our couple, with marrige ceremonies, large and small, at both the old homestead and their newer London digs.

Robert may have been the assistant to the Earl of Ranelagh in his role of Paymaster to the Armed Forces.

"Same to the Auditor of the Receipt to issue 484l, 10s. 4d. to the Earl of Ranelagh on the unsatisfied order in his name as Paymaster of the Forces : to be issued out of loans on the Coal Duties : and is to be paid to Robert Hysham in satisfaction of a bill drawn by Col. Gibson from Newfoundland 1697 Oct. 4 for provisions received from Mr. Teller for the use of his Majesty's Land Forces there : and is to be placed to the account of subsistence of the said Forces." - from the "Calendar of Tresury Books"
In another place Robert's surname was spelled as Heysham. Richard Jones (1641-1712) was the 1st Earl of Ranelagh. Interestingly, He was appointed to the lucrative post of Paymaster in 1685. He was expelled from Parliament in 1703 when discrepancies were found in his accounts as Paymaster, and he was discovered to have appropriated more than 900,000 pounds of public funds. Jones had married Katherine Boyle, the sister of the famous Robert Boyle, of Boyle's Law.

From a footnore: "The accounts for 1698 show "Recd of Dr Edward Lake by him obeyed of Mr Robert Heysham as a Gift to the College, 10 Guineas." - from "Sion College and Libary" by Ernest Harold Pearce. The gift may have to do with the relationship between the college and the church where Robert was married.

Sion College

The college was founded in London by royal charter in 1630 as a theological school and almshouse. Its original funding came from the will of the Reverend Thomas White, Vicar of St Dunstan in the West.

Robert was elected member of Parliament for the town of Lancaster. The franchise was limited in those days and in 1698 there were only 426 voters in the borough. In his first election in 1698 Robert ran with Charles Rigby, the brother of Edward Rigby, in opposition the Whigs Roger Kirkby and Sir Joseph Tily. Robert won election in the following elections.

9 August 1698 (with Roger Kirkby)
13 January 1701 (with Roger Kirkby)
1 December 1701 (with Roger Kirkby)
27 July 1702 (with Sir William Lowther, baronet)
15 May 1705 (with his brother William) - it was said that in the run up to the election "all pretenders vanished"
12 May 1708 (with his brother William) - their position was so strong at this time that they ran unopposed
18 October 1710 (with his brother William) - in this election the Heyshams were initially opposed, but once again their challengers withdrew before the election
3 September 1713 (with his brother William) - Robert first ran in London, where he was defeated in a questionable ballot, but then won, unchallenged, in Lancashire
A canvass book for the Parliamentary election of 25 September 1710 at Lancaster listed voters in alphabetical order with columns headed R.H. [Robert Heysham], W.H. [William Heysham], and B. [Doddin Braddill] - from Miscellaneous Papers of St. Peter's Roman Catholic church of Lancaster.

Subsequently Robert was elected for the city of London, from 1715 to 1722, for which he served in the first septennial Parliament after the close of which he died, on 24 February 1722/3. Robert was originally a Hannoverian Tory, but by 1715 had become a Whig and an anti-ministerialist. To understand his support in Parliament it is important to remember that he and his brother, also in Parliament, "were export merchants and ship managers. That meant that over the years they had given valued business to hundreds of firms among those London tradesmen who sold export goods or ships' stores and gear: drapers, ironmongers, sailmakers, ropemakers, and the like . . ." - from "Perry of London." These men were all indebted to the Heyshams and rewarded them accordingly.

Lancaster in Parliament

The borough of Lancaster first exercised the elective franchise in the 23rd year of Edward I's reign, but its representation was irregular until the reign of Edward VI. Since that time the borough has regularly returned two members to Parliament. The right of election is vested in the freemen generally, of whom there were about three thousand in the mid-19th century. The mayor and bailiffs were the returning officers.

Robert was mentioned in the Will of Allen Lyde, Gent. of the Inner Tempe of London, 27 November 1698. ". . . my friends Robert Heysham of London merchant . . ." - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800." Its interesting that this was considered a Barbados will. Did Robert get out to the islands?

Robert and William were mentioned in the Will of Edward Denny of St. Peters Parish, Barbodos, 24 July 1710. ". . . money in the hands of William Hoysham and Robert Hoysham in London merchants . . . " - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800."

Robert was mentioned in the will of John Panton Esq of the island of St. Christopher, 17 August 1716. "Robert Heysham Esq of London . . ." - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800."

Robert was also mentioned in the Will of William Roberts Esq, merchant, of St. Michaels Parish, 9 June 1718. ". . . my friends Robert Heysham of London merchant, Thomas Withers, Robert Warren - Gdns of my son; . . . " - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800."

Robert and his brother, William, were part of a middle class who rose during the late Stuart and early Hanoverian period. Their prominence was based on commerce rather than family. They were what were called "non-elite" M.P.'s.

"An intermingling of provincial and City interests was reflected in the careers of the two Heysham brothers, Robert and William, natives and leading citizens of Lancaster, which they had represented in tandem between 1705 and 1715. Both had a stake in West Indian commerce, but Robert, perhaps through the family to which the wives of both brothers belonged, also had a connection with the Drapers' Company of London, of which he was to be elected master for 1720-1. While William was reelected for Lancaster in 1715, Robert was chosen as one of the representatives for London." - from "British 'Non-Elite' MPS, 1715-1820" by Ian R. Christie, 1995.
Robert was noted as being an active member, though no report of a speech is known. There is postive evidence, however, that he "occasionally intervened in debate." Most of the "non-elite" members, such as Robert's brother, William, were happy to provide silent approval of their party's positions.

Robert was a Colonial agent for Barbados in London from 1700 to 1705 - From “Merchants & Bankers from 1700-1750.” The colonial agent was a representative of the colony's interests, of its landholders and merchants, to the government. He was much like an ambassador or lobbyist and would attempt to get favorable legislation passed, adverse regulations ameliorated and resolve conflicts. An example is of the Virginia colony. After the passage of the Navigation Acts, which severely restricted who the colonies could trade with, the colonists appointed ex-Royal Governor Berkeley as their colonial agent to present their grievances at Court and to obtain some sort of redress.

Benjamin Franklin was a colonial agent for several of the states-to-be, including Pennsylvania, while he lived in London between 1757 and 1762, and then again from 1764 to 1775.

The colonial agent was paid by the colonists, perhaps with a pecentage of the trade profits. Robert’s brothers, both Gyles and William, were on the island of Barbados and may have served as his representatives there. As an M.P. and Alderman Robert would have been well placed for this job. Note: Joseph Marryat was a British MP from 1757 to 1824 while also colonial agent for Grenada for the same period so it is possible to hold this position while not being physically present, or having ever seen, the colony represented.

Barbados

English colonists first settled Barbados in 1624. In 1647, after trying several different crops, plantation owners tried sugar cane. This commodity "made" the colony, which became the leading colonial exporter. The value of Barbados exports eventually exceeded the total of that for the combined exports from the rest of the Americas! Even a few acres on Barbados were worth thousands of acres elsewhere. In 1665 England captured Jamaica from Spain and its plantations eventually outstripped Barbados as the leading exporter of sugar.

In the late 1600's many of the Barbados plantation owners removed to the colony of South Carolina, bringing with them their slave-intensive plantation system. Their transplanted attitudes about slavery made this state the most extreme in the build up to the Civil War.

In the second half of the century Barbados was devastated by storms, draught, pestilence and, finally, competition from other Caribbean islands. Many of its colonists emigrated to America, including a substantial Quaker population who, in the main, moved to William Penn's colony of Pennsylvania.

See also Chronicle Barbados, the center for Barbados studies in History and Genealogy.

Other colonial agents for Barbados serving at the same time as Robert included his brother, William, and the following who were also mentioned in “Merchants & Bankers from 1700-1750,” William Bridges, an M.P. in 1705, and Francis Eyles of London, esquire, a prominent merchant. He was a director of the East India Company, Alderman of London and Member of Parliament for Devizes, in Wiltshire. He was cast out of the Commons on 28 January 1721. The reason stated was "Director of the South Seas Company." See "The South Seas Bubble," below.

Robert, as a West India merchant, was deeply involved in the slave trade. "Heysham became an independent slave trader, becoming 'the largest African separate trader of Anne's reign.'" - from "The House of Commons, 1690-1715. The monopoly of the Royal Africa Company was successfully challenged in the 1690's.

"Bristol in the 1690s participated in the movement that culminated in the downfall of the company's monopoly. After the free-trade victory of 1698, Bristol was vigilant in fighting efforts to restore the privilege to the company. It sent two prominent slave dealers, the brothers Robert and William Heysham, to represent its interests in the early years of the new century." - from "The Transatlantic Slave Trade" by James A. Rawley and Stephen D. Behrendt

". . . I shall condescend on some of many instances which may be given, for proving the usefulness of the latter [forts established on the African coast], even to the private traders themselves, as particularly at Whidah: The Company's Chief, by his Interest and Power with the King there [the King of Whydah] and by threatening to intercept the Trade of that country, by firing from the Company's Fort, etc. obtain'd Restitution of a Ship with Three Hundred Negroes taken in that Road by the French; which Ship did belong to Mr. [Robert] Heysham, now a member of Parliament, . . ." - from "Reflections Upon the Constitution and Management of the Trade to Africa" by Charles Davenant, 1709
Whidah, or Whydah, is in the present-day nation of Benin. According to one European account visiting in 1692-1700, Whydah exported some thousand slaves a month, mainly from the interior of Africa. For this reason, it has been considered a "principal market" for human beings.

The Portuguese, English and French all constructed forts in the city to protect their interests in slaving. The English fort was Fort William.

The records of the Royal African Company show the value of consignments of goods to Africa between 1702 and 1712. Robert made 9 consignments with a value of 33,920 pounds, the largest from the list of separate traders, that is those not affiliated with the Royal Africa Company. This means that Robert financed 9 trans-Atlantic voyages. Robert's brother, Gyles, while an agent of the RAC on Barbados would also deal with the separate traders and undoubtedly pedaled Robert's slaves to the West Indian market.

"The separate traders enjoyed more spontaneous petitioning support, which, after 1688, could more readily assert itself. They received thirty-three petitions from provincial civic bodies such as borough corporations and mercantile interest groups including the Bristol Society of Merchant Venturers. Such groups often dispatched their own interests by watching the progress of Africa trade debates. The separate traders also proved more imaginative and successful as cultivators of other influential petitioning interests than the company. Robert Heysham, the separate traders' parliamentary leader, wrote to colonial and provincial civic bodies to arrange petitions. In January 1709 the company's agent in Liverpool informed Africa House (the Royal African Company's London headquarters on Leadenhall Street) "that this post Mr Heysham has written to Captain Clayton to Get a petition from that Town against the Company." Heysham also wrote to several other members of Parliament and obtained a petition from Chester in February 1709. Such lobbying helped the separate traders to simultaneously recruit sympathizing members of Parliament to their banner and gather petitions."

"The separate traders also placed more value on the number of signatures rather than their quality as the company did. In September 1709 the Royal African Company's agents in Barbados enclosed a petition "of ye Best Characters and Estates in ye Island and are now owners of 2/3 of ye Land and Negroes." They went on to recount how the governor bowed to the interest of William Heysham (Robert's brother and business partner in Barbados) and had his militia officers rally their "common soldiers" to sign a separate trader petition that was "Kept out of Town and signed by Servants and Such." "Had we thought," they went on, "the number of hands and not the Quality we could easily out done them ... [and] could had all the sailors in the five men of war which are in much better circumstances than [r]ough servants hardly a Degrees above slaves." Excluding the separate trader petitions themselves, petitions in support of the separate traders contained nearly eight thousand signatories compared with the company's twenty-five hundred. Company sympathizers found the separate traders' lobbying methods distasteful. Daniel Defoe, a company propagandist, believed that the separate traders imposed on their provincial contacts and watched with amazement as "the Clamours of the Petitions which they have rais'd, (as Witches do the Devil) from the several Counties of England, and made the poor People say any Thing they bid them." The separate traders' political repertoire better suited the post-1688 political climate in which appeals to public opinion legitimized proposals for change."

. . .

"Scholars have mapped the party divisions of Whig and Tory onto the dispute between the separate traders and the company with the Tories favoring the latter. The individuals involved doubtless maintained opinions that would categorize them as either Whig or Tory. But the party affiliations of the company and separate traders did not allow either side a legislative victory in the Africa trade dispute. Party labels perhaps stimulated early momentum for both sides' cause. Yet they did not decide the issue. One-third of the company directors in Parliament were Whigs and nearly half the parliamentary separate traders were Tories, including their leader, Robert Heysham."

. . .

"A new generation of separate traders formed themselves into a powerful interest group. In the 1690s a handful of plutocrats managed the separate traders' political operation. Oligarchs including Sir Gilbert Heathcote and John Gardner led the cause for free trade. By the first decade of the eighteenth century, politically active separate traders numbered more than one hundred, whereas nearly five hundred individuals are documented as assembling cargoes bound for Africa. By isolating those whose repeated involvement in the trade can be proved and those who operated politically more than once, twenty-one elite separate traders emerge. Those who appeared before the Board of Trade or in Parliament or who wrote reports—including Richard Harris, Robert Heysham, Isaac Milner, Humphrey Morice, and Peter Paggen—represent the unofficial leaders of the separate traders' political operation. All traded slaves on a vast scale."

. . .

"Second only to the Royal African Company itself, Heysham had been the largest importer of sugar into England in the 1690s and became the largest independent consigner of slaves to the colonies in the first decade of the eighteenth century. He stood as the member of Parliament for Lancaster from 1698 to 1715 and led the separate traders' cause in Parliament. He died resplendent in 1727 worth more than forty-five thousand pounds and surrounded by goods suitable for the Africa trade, such as chintz and rangoes." - from "Free to Enslave: Politics and the Escalation of Britain's Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1688–1714" by William A. Pettigrew, in "The William and Mary Quarterly"

The Heysham brothers were also established on the tiny island of St. Christopher [now St. Kitts]. During Queen Anne's War, 1702 to 1713, hostilities included the sugar islands of the Caribbean. The English attacked Guadeloupe and severely damaged their plantations. The French retaliated in 1706 and, with a force of two thousand men, attacked St. Christopher. They stripped and burned every plantation beyond the protection of English arms. The planters sought compensation from Parliament.

"A London mercantile firm, Robert and William Heysham and Partners, lost an extremely diversified stock of goods ranging from boiling-house furnaces, coppers, ladles, and skimmers to chests of soap, coils of cordage, barrels of hoes, trunks of hats, shoes, lace, fans, masks, gloves, 1,000 yards of linen cloth, 1,000 quill pens, nine dozen earthenware porringers, and 88 custard cups." - from "Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1713."

The Islands of St. Christopher and Nevis

These two small islands were the first settled by the English in the Caribbean, in 1624. French counter-claims were not settled until the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. Located amongst the Leeward islands of the Lesser Antiles, St. Christopher and Nevis lie just north of Monserrat, Antigua and Guadeloupe. Barbados is south of this group.

Robert Heysham was the owner, or part owner, for 29 voyages, dating from 1699 to 1712. Some years there were multiple voyages, but that was usually when Robert shared ownership. Giles Heysham was the sole owner on one voyage, in 1700. The ships names are various, meaning, I believe, that Robert was owner of the cargo, not the ship. The destination was usually Barbados, but sometimes Jamaica and, on one occassion each, Montserrat and Rio de la Plata [Buenos Aires]. Richard Holmes was a favored partner, being with Robert on four voyages. Oddly I see no voyages after 1712 and Robert only died in 1723. - from "London Slave Ship Voyages" by Kenneth Cozens.

From the MSS. of the House of Lords:


- 1695 Robert Heysham, Barbadoes merchant, summoned to the Committee on Naval miscarriages.

- 1695 Roberrt Heysham, signature to paper delivered to the Committee.

- 1696 Persons ill-treated by the Admiralty—Mr. Robert Heysham, at Lloyd’s coffee house.


17th century London Coffee House

A "Garbler's Office" had been erected within the city of London to ensure that spices had been garbled and took a fee for the Exchequer. However, by 1696 certain West-Indies merchants put forward a petition to Parliament of their grievances with this office.

The Garbler

From Latin cribrum, a sieve. To garble was a technical term in medieval commerce throughout the Mediterranean, mainly within the spice trade. A garbler was a person whose job was to sieve spices to remove the rubbish from them, the garble then being the rubbish itself.

The word was later applied to various figurative kinds of sifting, such as the weeding out of unfit persons from an organisation or to a process by which coins were inspected for quality. This led to the idea of sifting words. Garbled words lack meaning and are the refuse or rubbish of intended communications.

From the Journal of the House of Commons: volume 11: 1693-1697, 2 March 1696,

"Mr. Robert Heyshom [sic]: That, in Times of Peace, Ginger may be bought for 7 s. per Hundred in Barbadoes; and that the Garbler's Demands here are 12 d. per Hundred: That he is an Importer thereof, and has imported large Quantities, and never had the same [demanded to be] garbled, till last Summer:
That, about March last, he sold a Parcel of Ginger to Mr. Stonehewer, for Exportation; and, because he did not pay the Garbler, was soon after served with a Subpæna from the Exchequer; where he is still prosecuted by the Garbler; who generally marks out those Men he designs to be troublesome to, and excuses several others, who pay him some certain Composition for not garbling their Goods:
That the Rates are so high, that One of his Porters, or Servants, may earn him 3 l. a Day upon Garbling Ginger only; which, besides the Duty, is very grievous and burdensome to the Merchants, and altogether needless; for, when this Act was made, 'twas in the Infancy of Trade, and not any Ginger scarce exported. "

"Mr. Heysham: That the Garbler makes him pay 12d. per Hundred for Ginger; and others but 6d.; whereby he gives them the Opportunity of underselling him, to his great Disadvantage."
It was resolved that, in the opinion of the committee of Parliament, that the garbling of goods was a great discouragement to trade and prejudicial to the merchant.

The Records of Archer of Tanworth, Estate, legal, personal and official papers,

- 14 December 1698 "William Bridges's account of 'Monys Received upon Bills of Exchange return'd by the Atturneys' and 'monys paid in Discharg of Severall debts', on account of Col. Francis Russell's estate. Mention is made of Capt. Vincent Cutter, Col. Farmer, Mr. Brooke, Capt. Philip Phillips, Mr. Heysham, Daniel Reve, Charles Robertson, John Span, John Adams, George Cleret, [?cheret] James Weyr [?Wire], Mr. Wildman, John Roffey, Mr. Cuthbert, Mr. Tryon, Richard Wilkison."
- Undated c1698 "An Account of what papers are in my hand as Bills of Exchange &c.', totalling £1303:0:0. Mention is made of Jonathan Langley, William Bridges, Thomas Garth, [?], Bowlls, Eras [...] Fetter, Samuel Martyn, Daniel Reeve, Vincent Cutter, John Farmer, William Broke, Phillip Philips, Messrs. Jyles [Gyles?] Robert Heysham, Samuel Shurman, Thomas Tryon and Richard Wilkinson. The bills are at nos. 489 to 497. Endorsed in Lady Russell's hand: 'these are ye a Counts of Bils of Exchang sent from Borbadoss with ye heds of Colonall Russels Letter Relating to his Regements a Counts."

Noting the decline of Barbados in the early 18th century, William Bridges and Robert Heysham, agents for Barbados, sent a note to the Board of Trade on 7 October 1702 "on the emigration of small freeholders to North America "where provisions are more plenty.""

"The Mace of the Borough of Lancaster is one of the neatest specimens of Corporation insignia extant . . . It dates from the reign of Queen Anne and bears the letters "A.R.," the inscription is as follows: The gift of Robert Heysham, Esq., to ye Corporation of Lancaster, December 1702." - from "Time-Honoroed Lancaster."

The marble font for St Peter’s church, Liverpool, consecrated in 1704, was presented by Robert Heysham esq., merchant of London, originally from Lancaster.

"The new church built on the north side of the town is worth observation. 'Tis a noble, large building, all of stone, well fnish'd; has in it a fine font of marble placed in the body of the church, surrounded with a beautiful iron pallisado; the gift of the late Mr. Heysham, a merchant of London, but considerably concerned in trade on this side, and for many years Member of Parliament for Lancaster." - from Letter 10, "Lancashire, Westmorland and Cumberland," of Daniel Defoe's "A Tour through England and Wales divided into circuits or journeys"
Daniel Defoe is best known as the author of "Robinson Crusoe," but was also famous as a pampleteer, journalist, and travel writer.

From the James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota: Bolton, Morgan & Co. Letters to Robert and William Heysham, merchants, London : 1697- 1713. 8 items.|c 37 cm. Call Number: 1697 fBo.

Robert became possessed of the manor of Little Munden. Robert received Little Munden via his wives, who were sole heirs of that property. Note that his grandmother was probably Jane Bayly of Hoddesdon, which is nearby Little Munden. Was there already a connection with Hertfordshire? In 1706 Robert rented the Little Munden property.

"Lease for 21 years" was granted on 4 February 1706 "By Robert Heysham of London esq, to William Ansell of Buntingford Westmill, gent, John Cocke of Great Munden, gent, and Jonas Cocke of Great Munden, yeoman, of the capital messuage and farm called Little Munden Lordship, and tithe free lands in Rowney in Great and Little Munden, also all other lands belonging to the manor of Little Munden.
Field names given.
Signatures: William Ansell (arm seal)
John Cock (arm seal, cracked)
Jonas Cock (arm seal, cracked).
Witnesses: Ar Windus, James Windus, Jno Windus" - from "Title deeds, estate papers, family papers and other official papers of the Lytton family of Knebworth House, Hertfordshire."
William Robinson Lytton was Robert's nephew-in-law and co-executor his will. Does this lease mean that Robert rented out estate lands for farming or did he rent the house as well?

Little Munden

The parish of Little Munden, in east Hertfordshire, consists of five hamlets, Dane End, Green End, Haultwick, White Hill and Potters Green, set in rolling farmland, with narrow lanes, and is known locally as 'Little Devon'. Dane End is set in the valley (dene=end of valley), its satellite hamlets on the hills above.

In the reigns of Henry II and his son, Richard, the manor of Little Munden was in the possession of Stephen de Scales. He died in 1230. The family was mentioned first, in the person of Hardwin de Scales, in the Domesday survey. Andrews de Scales, probably a brother or son, was the rector of the parish church in 1219. Robert de Scales were later made Baron by Edward I for his service in the Scottish wars. Their arms were Gules with six escallops argent. They flourished into the reign of Edward IV when a female heir, Elizabeth, married Anthony Widville, Earl Rivers. Rivers was subsequently killed by Richard III and his lands forfeited.

William Say acquired Little Munden in 1486.

". . . William Says into whose possession [the manor of] Little Mundon came . . . died seised of it in 1529, after which it descended to his heirs in the same manner of Benington (qv) and came with that manor to the Crown. It was leased to Thomas Crompton in 1594-5 for twenty-one years. In 1602 Thomas Crompton conveyed his lease to Michael Woodcock." - from "Victoria History of the County of Hertfordshire."
“In the 21st year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth the Manor of Little Munden, Herts, was in the possession of Michael Woodcock, Esq., who settled it upon his son Michael upon his marriage with Dorothy, daughter of Wm. Woodhall, who first mortgaged it and afterwards sold it to Sir Peter Vanlore. Sir Peter settled it in jointure with Ann his daughter, upon her marriage with Sir Chas. son of Sir Julius Caesar; but Sir Peter, not satisfied with his title, from the preceding settlement, applied to Chancery against Woodcock and Woodhall and recovered his money; and this estate was by Act of Parliament resettled upon Edmund Woodhall. He was Registrar of the P.C.C. and married Margaret, daughter of Anthony Law of London. He left a son, Edmund, who had 2 sons and 2 daughters. Edmund, the eldest son, inherited and dying without issue, in the year 1655, his younger brother John came into possession of the estate and died in the year 1660, as did his sister Elizabeth, whereupon their manor came to Mary the survivor who became the wife of Edmund Thornton, by whom she had 2 daughters, Mary and Jane. Mary became the first, and Jane the second, wife of Robert Heysham, Esq., sometime Alderman of London and afterwards of Stagenhoe, in the parish of Paul’s Walden, Herts., who became possessed of this estate in their right. From him it descended to his son and heir Robert.”
The manor house, a 16th century construction known as Lordship farm, shown above left, still exists today. Today the village of Little Munden is known as Dane End.

From the Journals of the House of Commons, 1708-09, volume 16:

Full Title: African Trade
Corporate Author: House of Commons.Committee of the Whole House
Chairman: Powlett, Lord Wm.
Abstract: "Bill for settling the trade to Africa.The Order of the Day being read, for the House to resolve itself into a Committee of the whole House, to consider further of the Trade to Africa; Ordered, That the distinct Valuation of the Forts and Settlements on the Coasts of Africa, belonging to the Royal African Company of England (presented to the House by the said Company) and the scheme, for carrying on the Trade to Africa (presented to the House by the separate Traders to Africa) be referred to the Consideration of the said Committee. Then the House (according to Order) resolved itself into the said Committee. Mr Speaker left the Chair. The Lord Wm. Powlett took the Chair of the Committee. Mr Speaker resumed the Chair. The Lord Wm. Powlett reported from the Committee, that they had directed him to move the House, that Leave may be given to bring in a Bill for settling the Trade to Africa. Ordered, That Leave be given to bring in a Bill for settling the Trade to Africa; and that the Lord Wm. Powlett, Mr Poulteney, Mr Yate, Mr Dolben, Sir Walter Young, Mr Nevill, Mr Heysham, Sir Gilbert Heathcott, Mr Ward, Mr Onslow, and Colonel Lloyd, do prepare, and bring in the Bill"

While Robert traded in sugar over his entire merchantile career, to get some idea of the size of his trade, from 1710 to 1716 he imported some 5,400 hogsheads.

As noted above, Robert's niece, Elizabeth Heysham, married into the powerful Lytton family. On 24 & 25 October 1712 a "Settlement on the marriage of William Robinson Lytton and Elizabeth Heysham" was recorded,

"Lease for a year by William Robinson Lytton of Knebworth, esquire, younger son of William Robinson of Upper Gwersilt, Denbigh, esquire, and devisee of Lytton Lytton late of Knebworth, esquire, to Robert Heysham of Stagenhoe, esquire, and William Heysham the elder of Charlton, Kent, esquire, brother of the above."

"Release and settlement between William Robinson Lytton, 1st, Elizabeth Heysham, spinster, niece of Robert Heysham, 2nd, Robert Heysham and William Heysham 3rd, Christopher Towers of Iver, Buckingham, gentleman, Robert Atkins of London, draper, and William Dixon of Lincoln's Inn, Middlesex, gentleman, 4th, and Humphrey Morris of London, merchant, William Heysham the younger, only son of William Heysham the elder, William Robinson, father of William Robinson Lytton, and George Shackerley of Lower Gwersilt, Denbigh, 5th, of the manor of Knebworth, the manor house and New Park there, and the advowson of the church of Knebworth; the manors of Letchworth, Hanchets, Mardleybury, Broxbourne otherwise Cannix, Halfhide and Homeleys, and the advowson of the church of Letchworth; and property in Knebworth, Letchworth, Datchworth, Stevenage, Codicote, Hitchin, Graveley, Shephall, Chesfield, Little Wymondley and Welwyn including Rye End Farm, Knebworth, Fair Lane Farm and Canwicks Farm, Stevenage, Burley Farm, Letchworth, Willhouse or White Lyon formerly called Dryeers, Graveley, and Bromebarnes, Stevenage. Also the manors or reputed manors of Anstey otherwise Anstey ad Castrum and lands in Hertford and Essex, and of Stotfold and lands in Stotfold, Bedford."
There was a further Agreement, in the "Title deeds and estate papers of the Lytton family of Knebworth House, Knebworth," dated 16 April 1718,
"Between William Robinson Lytton of Knebworth, esq, and Robert Heysham of Stagenhoe, esq, (who survived William Heysham the elder, late of Charlton, Kent) to revoke a marriage settlement of 25 Oct 1712, and limit the uses as under:
Property in Herts and Beds to the use of Robert Heysham in trust to secure an annuity to Bridget Lytton.
Signatures: W. Robinson Lytton (seal) Robert Heysham (seal)"
Bridget was the widow of Lytton Strode-Lytton.

18 April 1713: From the "Third Parliament of Great Britain: Third session (continued from 17/4/1713)," The History and Proceedings of the House of Commons : volume 5: 1713-1714 (1742), pp. 1-57: "Mr. Rob. Heisham" [sic] spoke "against the Bill" which was a "Petition against the Exportation of Wooll." A "Warm and long Debate in the House of Commons" was described "that lasted from Three a Clock in the Afternoon, till near Eleven at Night." The Bill was voted down.

Robert was engaged in a violent election in 1713 in which he stood as a Whig candidate. Feelings were so high that while on the hustings Robert was famously struck by Sir Richard Hoare, the Tory candidate and Lord Mayor of London that year. The issue of the day was a treaty of commerce with France, which Robert opposed. It appeared that Robert's party would win the vote for the four London seats when some questionable activity by their opposition, including pulling inmates out of the debtors prison, caused Robert's defeat. Robert was, however, returned to parliament for Lancaster. He continued in opposition to the government.

On 5 January 1714/15, a "Receipt of Francis Dell, churchwarden, to Robert Heysham, for a gift to the poor of the parish of St. Andrew Hubbard" was recorded in the Rylands Charters, of London.

In 1715 Robert was described as a Whig. Previously, however, he had been a Tory. How so? From London Pollbooks, 1713: Introduction', London Politics 1713-1717: Minutes of a Whig club 1714-1717,

"What the opposition to the Tory government was trying to do in 1713, at least in London, was to promote parliamentary candidates not so much as Whigs as opponents of a commercial treaty with France, the defeat of which in June had been the biggest setback to the ministry since its formation in 1710. It had been accomplished by a combination of Whigs and dissident Tories, and by getting one of the latter to stand against ministerial candidates in London, opposition elements in the City were trying to keep up this alliance during the general election. The main objection to the treaty had been that it would jeopardise English trade and thereby the livelihoods of merchants, and the four opposition candidates [which included Robert Heysham] stressed that they were 'eminent merchants and great traders . . . who will never give up your trade to France, to the impoverishment of your own nation', unlike, by implication, their Tory rivals."
Robert lost, but the resulting vote was so close that,
"the defeated candidates to demand a scrutiny, which began on 31 October. On 2 November the Whig candidates published the list of those who had polled for the four Tories, asking the citizens of London to peruse it, and 'if you observe your friends or selves to be polled by others, or those polled which are dead, or have no right, you are desired (with what speed you can) to bring or send accounts thereof to Lawrance's Coffee-house, Freeman Yard in Cornhill, from 9 to 12, and from 1 to 6, and to furnish what necessary evidence can be obtained for the proof of your observations. The Tory sheriffs, however, brought the scrutiny to a close before the end of November, insisting that it should end when the time for the writ for the election ran out. "

Despite their defeat in both the poll and the scrutiny the Whigs prepared to petition parliament, to which end they were 'industriously busy in collecting objectors to the pollers' for the Tories. This led the scrutineers and friends of the Tory candidates to retaliate by publishing in February 1714 a list of those who had polled for their opponents. As they stated in their prefatory remarks, 'if therein you observe that your selves, or any persons else, have been personated by others, or those persons dead, or having no right to poll, were falsely polled, we entreat you to bring, or send an account thereof with the necessary proofs of your observations, to the London Coffee-House, in Ship Yard, in Bartholomew Lane, behind the Royal Exchange, any day (Sundays only excepted) between the hours of ten in the forenoon and six in the evening; at which time and place there will be attendance to receive them."
While the outcome of this action it is not clear, Robert eventually regained his seat. In "Mintues of a Whig Club: 1715" under "Alterations in the commissioners for swearing the wards . Aldgate: to be added," were Robert Heysham and Micajah Perry. See Micajah Perry under Robert's brother, William, below. He was a powerful merchant, heavily involved in the tobacco trade in Virginia. William married his daugther. This Whig club abrupting dissolved in January 1717.

From the UK Archives, Rylands Charters, London:
- 5 January 1714/15 "Receipt of Francis Dell, churchwarden, to Robert Heysham, for a gift to the poor of the parish of St. Andrew Hubbard."

The next is from the Colonial Office 194 Series Papers. These papers relate to the history of Newfoundland during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Page: 303-303v.
Date: 16 March 1715.
From: Sam Shepheard (a Newfoundland merchant), Alex Cairnes, Robert Heysham, John Burridge, John Lambert, Solomon Merritt (a London merchant), and Jonathon Rudge.
To: James Stanhope, Secretary of State.
Contents: They request that the map of St. Peter's be made public which Capt. Taverner submitted Oct. last. Taverner has great skill in navigation and we hope that he will continue his work.

James Stanhope (1673-1721)

An English general and statesman. During the War of the Spanish Succession he participated in the capture of Barcelona in 1705, was appointed minister to Spain in 1706, and in 1708 became commander in chief of the British forces there. He soon captured Minorca, taking Port Mahon and making it a winter base for the British fleet. He won the battles of Almenara and Zaragoza in 1710 but lost his army to the French at Brihuega the same year and was himself imprisoned for a year in Spain. On the accession in England of George I in 1714, Stanhope became a secretary of state. Devoting himself primarily to foreign affairs, he concluded a complex series of treaties, including the Triple Alliance in 1717 with France and the Dutch. As chief minister in 1717-18 he carried through the plans originated by Robert Walpole to fund the national debt and repealed the Occasional Conformity and Schism acts against dissenters. Becoming secretary of state again, Stanhope negotiated the Quadruple Alliance of 1718 against Spain and formed a Baltic coalition to resist Russian expansion. His masterful diplomacy greatly strengthened Great Britain’s position in Europe. He was created Earl Stanhope in 1718.


Captain Taverner

He received a royal commission as Surveyor of Newfoundland on 21 July 1713. St. Peter's is a bay in Newfoundland.

In September 1715 the Jacobites, followers of the "Old Pretender," rose in Scotland and the north soon after the the death of Queen Anne and coronation of the first Hannoverian King, George I. An army of about 2000 descended on Lancaster.

"In the river that runs by Lancaster, at a distance of five miles, there lay a ship of about 500 tons burthen, belonging to a Mr. Heysham of London, and a wealthy Quaker of Lancaster, Mr. Lawson. There were onboard six pieces of cannon, some blunderbusses, and small arms. The attempt to negotiate for the use of the cannon was unsuccessful, except on condition that Sir Henry [Houghton] would give Mr. Lawson a bond of ten thousand pounds to ensure the ship against any damages she might sustain from the rebels, when they should hear that he had parted with the cannon to be used against them." - from "Lancashire Memorials of the Rebellion MDCCVV [1715]"
Another reference provides the name of the ship.
Footnote. "2. See E 190/1390/1. This must be the Robert from which the Jacobites in 1715 seized six cannon whilst she was lying at Sunderland Point. See Rev. Robert Patten, History of the late Rebellion (2nd edition enlarged, London, 1717), pp. 92-4. He did not name the vessel, but described her as 'a Ship of about 500 Tun, belonging to Mr Hisham of London, and Mr Lawson, an eminent Quaker in [the] Town' of Lancaster; . . . She was identified by name in a contemporary account (see S.H. Ware, op.cit., Chetham Soc., vol. V, p.87). Another vessel called the Robert, built at Lancaster in 1717, was registered at London in 1726, possibly as a result of Robert Heysham's death in 1722. Michael Pallister was then master and part-owner, with Robert Lawson . . ." - from "The Autobiography of William Stout of Lancaster" by John Duncan Marshall
The mayor and council seized the arms without providing the bond, but lacking reinforcements from the south city was not defendable and the rebels were allowed to take Lancaster "unopposed."
"They continued at Lancaster from Monday the 7th, to Wednesday the 9th, during which time they seized some new arms . . . they likewise took up all the money belonging to the revenue, which was either in the Excise-office or Custom-house; also in the harbour, and which belonged to Mr. Heysham, a merchant of London, and member of Parliament. They found six pieces of cannon, which they seized, mounted them upon new carriages, and took them to Preston." - from "The Miscellaneous Prose Works of Sir Walter Scott"
The Jacobites, however, were defeated at Preston.

Robert's brother, William, died in 1716 and Robert went into partnership with his nephew, William Heysham Jr.

In 1716 Robert was the victim of theft in the city of London. A trial was held at the Old Bailey on 22 February 1716. The defendent was Robert Newman.

"Richard Newman, of the Parish of St. Paul, Shadwell, was indicted for feloniously stealing 40 Pound Weight of Sugars, the Goods of Robert Heysham, on the 7th Instant, But the Evidence not enough to convict him, acquitted.
Remember that with his ties to Barbadoes, Robert would have been a sugar merchant/importer. Robert may also have appeared at the Old Bailey on 11 October 1721 in proceedings against Sir John Fryer, but the original document is unclear.

Robert apparently had a long professional relationship with his nephew-in-law, William Robinson Lytton. On 17 April 1718 a Grant

"By William Robinson Lytton of Knebworth, esq, and Robert Heysham of Stagenhoe, esq, 1st, to Bridget Lytton of Penbedw, Denbigh, widow of Lytton Lytton late of Knebworth, esq, deceased, 2nd, of a rent charge of £540 out of the Red Lion, Fetter Lane, London, two messuages in Fleet Street, and property in Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire as set out in a previous settlement of 17 June 1710 and in accordance with an Order in Chancery of 1716.
For further security the property is let to Richard Mostyn of Penbedw, esq, and Joseph Ashton of St Clement Dane's, Middx, gent, 3rd."
From "Title deeds, estate papers, family papers and other official papers of the Lytton family of Knebworth House, Hertfordshire." Another document, a "Lease for a year," was signed on 18 April 1718. From the same source:
"By Robert Heysham of Stagenhoe esq, (who survived William Heysham the elder, late of Charlton, Kent, esq, deceased) and William Robinson Lytton of Knebworth, esq, 1st, to Heylock Kingsley of Furzenhall, Biggleswade, Beds, esq, and John Nodes of Shephall, gent, 2nd, of Anstey Farm, Anstey Woods, Halfhyde Farm in Shephall and Stevenage, the farm called Fair Lane or Whomely in Stevenage, Mardleybury Farm in Welwyn, a messuage or Farm at Woolmer Green, Welwyn, and Nightingale Farm, Stotfold, Beds."

From the Journals of the House of Commons, 22 March 1719. House of Commons. Committee, to Whom the Petition of Several Merchants, Trading to Virginia...as well as Divers Ship-builders..., Was Referred. Bill to encourage hemp, flax, deal boards.

"Mr Hampden reported from the Committee, to whom the Petition of several Merchants, trading to Virginia, New England, and the rest of the Plantations in America, as well as divers Ship-builders, Ropemakers, and others concerned in Ship-building and Navigation, was referred, the Matter, as it appeared to them; which they had directed him to report to the House; and he read the same in his Place; and afterwards delivered it in at the Clerk's Table: Where the same was read; and is as follows; viz. The Committee having taken into Consideration the said Petition; and examined several Merchants, to prove the Allegations therein contained;

Mr. Perry, Mr. Benja. Bradley, Mr. Jos. Gee , Mr. James Bradley: By whose Evidence it appeared, That the Manufacturers of Iron were under great Difficulties to carry on their Business, occasioned by the Dearness thereof; several Merchants declaring, that Iron was raised from Fourteen to Twenty-six Pounds per Ton:

That the Danes have raised their Deal Boards to double the Price they were at Four Years since: And that Deal Boards, that used to be sold for Eight Dollars per Hundred in Norway, are now sold for Eighteen Dollars: And that Deals, that used to be sold for Five Pounds per Hundredin London, are now sold for Seven Pounds, and Seven Pounds Ten Shillings, per Hundred.

It also appeared to the Committee, That the Czar of Muscovy, having now got into his Possession Riga, Narva, Revell, and divers other Places, from whence we receive our Supplies of Hemp and Flax, can prevent our importing sufficient Quantities to carry on our Navigation and Trade.

It likewise appeared to the Committee, That our Plantations in America; viz. Virginia, Maryland, Pensilvania, New York, New England, and several other Places in the Plantations; do abound with Iron-stone, and all other Conveniences for making Pig-iron; and have all Sorts of Timber for Boards; and have Ground capable and proper or sowing Hemp and Flax.

Ordered, That Leave be given to bring in a Bill for encouraging the Importation of Hemp, Flax and Deal Boards, from the Plantations: and that Mr. Hampden, Mr. Barrington, Mr. Heysham, and Mr. Yonge, do prepare, and bring in, the same"

From the Journals of the House of Commons, 1718-19, volume 19:

Full Title: Plantation iron, wood, etc. Petition of merchants trading to Virginia, New England and the rest of the plantations in America
Corporate Author: House of Commons.Committee, to Whom the Petition of Several Merchants, Trading to Virginia...as well as Divers Ship-builders..., Was Referred
Chairman: Hampden, Richard
Abstract: " Abstract: <../fieldhelp.html> Bill to encourage hemp, flax, deal boards "Mr Hampden reported from the Committee, to whom the Petition of several Merchants, trading to Virginia, New England, and the rest of the Plantations in America, as well as divers Ship-builders, Ropemakers, and others concerned in Ship-building and Navigation, was referred, the Matter, as it appeared to them; which they had directed him to report to the House; and he read the same in his Place; and afterwards delivered it in at the Clerk's Table: Where the same was read; and is as follows; viz. The Committee having taken into Consideration the said Petition; and examined several Merchants, to prove the Allegations therein contained; Mr. Perry, Mr. Benja. Bradley, Mr. Jos. Gee , Mr. James Bradley: By whose Evidence it appeared, That the Manufacturers of Iron were under great Difficulties to carry on their Business, occasioned by the Dearness thereof; several Merchants declaring, that Iron was raised from Fourteen to Twenty-six Pounds per Ton: That the Danes have raised their Deal Boards to double the Price they were at Four Years since: And that Deal Boards, that used to be sold for Eight Dollars per Hundred in Norway, are now sold for Eighteen Dollars: And that Deals, that used to be sold for Five Pounds per Hundredin London, are now sold for Seven Pounds, and Seven Pounds Ten Shillings, per Hundred. It also appeared to the Committee, That the Czar of Muscovy, having now got into his Possession Riga, Narva, Revell, and divers other Places, from whence we receive our Supplies of Hemp and Flax, can prevent our importing sufficient Quantities to carry on our Navigation and Trade. It likewise appeared to the Committee, That our Plantations in America; viz. Virginia, Maryland, Pensilvania, New York, New England, and several other Places in the Plantations; do abound with Iron-stone, and all other Conveniences for making Pig-iron; and have all Sorts of Timber for Boards; and have Ground capable and proper or sowing Hemp and Flax. Ordered, That Leave be given to bring in a Bill for encouraging the Importation of Hemp, Flax and Deal Boards, from the Plantations: and that Mr. Hampden, Mr. Barrington, Mr. Heysham, and Mr. Yonge, do prepare, and bring in, the same."
Full Title: Callicoes, printed. Petition of weavers, etc. Worcester
Corporate Author: House of Commons.Committee of the Whole House
Chairman: Carteret, Edward
Abstract: "Imported printed, painted, stained and dyed linens in apparel and in household furniture be prohibited after a certain time to be appointed ... unlawful exportation of wool from Great Britain and Ireland is a great occasion of the decay of the woollen manufactures of this Kingdom "Mr. Carteret, according to Order, reported from the Committee of the whole House, to whom the Petition of the Weavers, Walkers, and others, Freemen, and belonging to the incorporate Company of Clothiers in the City of Worcester, and other Petitions, were referred, the Resolutions the Committee had directed him to report to the House; which he read in his Place; and afterwards delivered in at the Clerk's Table: Where the same were read; and are as follow; viz. Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Committee, That the Use of all printed, painted, stained, and dyed, Callicoes, in Apparel, Houshold Furniture, or otherwise, in Great Britain, except such as are of the Growth and Manufacture of Great Britain and Ireland, be prohibited, after a certain Time to be appointed. Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Committee, That the Use of all printed, painted, stained and dyed, linens, in Apparel, Houshold Furniture, or otherwise, in Great Britain, except such as are of the Growth and Manufacture of Great Britain and Ireland, be prohibited, after a certain Time to be appointed. Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Committee, that the unlawful Exportation of Wool from Great Britain and Ireland into foreign Parts is a great Occasion of the Decay of the Woollen Manufactures of this Kingdom. The First Resolution being read a Second time, was, upon the Question put thereupon, agreed unto by the House. The Second Resolution being read a Second time; An Amendment was proposed to be made therein, by leaving out these Words, "and Ireland:"And the Question being put, That the Words "and Ireland" stand Part of the said Resolution; The House divided. The Noes go forth. {Lord Wm. Powlett, } 151 Tellers for the Yeas {Mr. Strickland: } Tellers for the Noes {Mr. Cunningham, } 126 { Sir Cha. Turner: } So it was resolved in the Affirmative. Resolved, That the House doth agree with the Committee in the said Resolution, That the Use of all printed, painted, stained, and dyed, Linens, in Apparel, Houshold Furniture, or otherwise, in Great Britain, except such as are of the Growth and Manufacture of Great Britain and Ireland, be prohibited, after a certain Time to be appointed. The Third Resolution, being read a Second time, was upon the Question put thereupon, agreed unto by the House. Ordered, That a Bill or Bills, be brought in upon the said Resolutions: And that Mr. Carteret, Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Secretary Craggs, Sir Thomas Hanmer, Mr. Walpole, Sir John Pakington, Mr. Wylde, Sir James Campbell, Mr. Cunningham, Mr. Daniel Campbell, Sir Charles Turnor, Mr. Bacon, Mr. Britisse, Mr. Heysham, Mr. Barrington,, Mr. Bladen, Mr. Yonge, Mr. Lowther, and Mr. Lowndes, do prepare, and bring in, the said Bill, or Bills."

Robert became possessed of property in Hertfordshire and purchased the estate of Stagenhoe [Stagerdown, Staggesden], in the parish of St Paul’s Walden, from Sir Robert Austen in 1703. Stagenhoe Park had been built by Sir John Hale. His only daughter and heir, Rose, married Sir John Austen, baronet, of Hall Place, the eldest son of Sir Robert Austen, of Bexley, who brought the estate into that family.

Robert Heysham had two brothers, Giles and William. Giles, who had died and was buried on 11 December 1702, is sometimes shown as "of Stagenhoe." In William's will, signed in Barbados in August 1703, it notes that he had intelligence that "certain lands . . . by the name of Stagino in Hertfordshire are purchased for me." This implies that the initial negotiations for the purchase were made before December 1702 and that the purchase was a family affair. This may explain certain language in the marriage settlement of Giles' daughter, Elizabeth, above, and her suit to get a share of the estate, below.

The Austen Family

(16) William Austen

He was born before 1571. He married Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward Hales.

(17) Sir Robert Austen (1587)
(16) William Austen

The 1st Baronet of Bexley, in Kent. He was born circa 1587. He was a London merchant and gained the baronetcy on 10 July 1660. Sheriff of Kent. He married Margaret, the daughter of William Williamson of London. His second wife was Anne, the daughter of Thomas Muns of Otteridge. Robert died on 30 October 1666. Even at this date the family had accumulated substantial debts. In his will Sir Robert requested that the cost of his funeral be kept to 100 pounds "on account of his great debts."

(18) Sir John Austen (1634)
(16) William Austen (17) Sir Robert Austen (1587)

The 2nd Baronent of Bexley. The son of Robert and Anne, he was born circa 1634. He married Rose, the daughter of Sir John Hale of Stagenhoe, in 1661. Baron of the Cinque Ports. The family continued in trade, especially to the Levant. John died in 1698.

(19) Sir Robert Austen (1663)
(16) William Austen (17) Sir Robert Austen (1587) (18) Sir John Austen (1634)

The 3rd Baronent of Bexley. He was born on 19 March 1663 at Bexley. He married Elizabeth, the daughter of George Stawell of Cotherston [Cothelstone], Somerset. He bought Hall Place. Robert died in 1701.

(20) Sir Robert Austen
(16) William Austen (17) Sir Robert Austen (1587) (18) Sir John Austen (1634) (19) Sir Robert Austen (1663)

The 4th Baronent of Bexley. He was born on 6 October 1697 and inherited the title at the age of 4. He married Rachel, the daughter of Sir Francis Dashwood, Baronet of West Wycomb, on 4 November 1738. Dashwood was a member of the infamous Hellfire Club. By this time the Austen finances were critical. The Dashwood's provied a dowry of 9000 pounds to reduce the mortgage on the Austen estates. Robert died on 7 October 1743, d.s.p., so much in debt that his estates went into Chancery. His brother, Sheffield inherited the baronetcy, but he also d.s.p. in 1758.

The baronetcy then devolved to the line of (18) Robert Austen, the second son of Sir Robert, but the baronetcy became extinct in 1772 when both (20) Edward Austen and (20) Robert Austen d.s.p..


Jane Austen, the novelist (1775-1817) was a descendent of this family.

"Austen's Bill
"The Earl of Clarendon reported from the Lords Committees, to whom the Bill, intitled, "An Act for vesting the Inheritance of the Manor of Court at Week, and divers other Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, in the County of Kent, in Trustees, to be sold, for Payment of the Debts and Legacies of Sir Robert Austen Baronet, deceased, was committed: That they had considered the said Bill; and that the Judges, pursuant to the Order of this House of the Twenty-ninth of April last, had drawn a Clause, to save such Interest as Mr. Heysham hath in the Estate intended to be sold, which was agreed to by the Committee; and that their Lordships had made some other Amendments to the Bill." - from: British History Online , House of Lords Journal Volume 19: 6 May 1712.
This notation implies that Robert may have loaned money, with Stagenhoe as collateral?, to Sir Austen before he went bankrupt and this action of Parliament was to protect that interest. Another reference from the same source notes,
"That it appearing to the Committee, that Robert Heysham Esquire, a Person concerned in the Consequence of the Bill, had no Notice to attend the Judges when it lay before them; and he having informed the Committee, "That he would not consent to the passing of the Bill, without the Addition of a Clause sent by him to their Lordships;" which they did not think reasonable: And the Committee, not thinking fit to take upon themselves to judge what might be a proper Saving in this Case, are therefore of Opinion, that it should be referred to the Judges who signed the Bill, to consider of, and prepare, a Clause, proper to save and preserve such Interest as the said Mr. Heysham hath in the Estate intended to be sold."

Stagenhoe Manor

Known as Stagenhou in the 11th century, Stagenho or Stagho in the 13th, Stattenho in the 15th, and Stangno, Stagnowe, or Stagnall in the 16th. It consisted of one hide and was held before the Norman Conquest by Turbern a man of King Edward, and he could sell it. After the Conquest it was given to Ranulph brother of Ilger and William held it of him. Nothing more is known of the descent of this manor until the middle of the 13th century when it occured as a knight's fee held of the manor of Weston next Baldock, which belonged to the Earls Marshal. The overlordship descended with that manor until 1339 when on the death of Thomas de Brotherton, the Earl of Norfolk, this fee was assigned to his daughter, Alice, the wife of Edward Montagu, the manor of Weston falling to the share of his other daughter, Margaret, the wife of John de Segrave. Edward and Alice had an only daughter, Joan, who married William Ufford, the Earl of Suffolk, and died without issue. This fee apparently passed to the abbots of St. Albans, of whom it was held in 1485.

The manor was held in 1245–6 by Simon Fitz Simon, probably a son of Simon Fitz Simon who held land in Hertfordshire in 1198–9, and died about 1215; and free warren was granted to Simon in 1253. Simon son of Simon de Hout in 1258 gave an undertaking to Sir Peter de Montfort under forfeiture of 600 marks that he would deliver to him possession of his lands in the manor of Stag. In 1253 and 1268–9 grants of free warren in Stagenhoe were made to the knights of the Temple, but it is possible that these grants referred to the demesne land of their manor of Chelles in Bengeo. Simon Fitz Simon's heir was John de Verdun and in 1306–7 one fee in Stagenhoe was held by Thomas de Verdun son of John, who died seised of the manor of Stagenhoe in 1315 leaving John his son and heir, a minor. John held one fee in Stagenhoe in 1339, and it was then valued at 100s. yearly. John de Verdun settled this manor in 1350–1 upon Edmund de Verdun, probably his son, and Joan his wife, and their heirs of the body, with remainder in default to the heirs of John. It afterwards came into the Pilkington family by the marriage of Margaret daughter and heir of John de Verdun, probably sister of Edmund, with Sir John Pilkington. In 1399–1400 Sir John Pilkington and Margery his wife settled the manor upon themselves for life with remainder to their son Edmund for life and to the heirs of Margery. She had previously married Hugh Bradshawe, by whom she had a son William, whose daughter Elizabeth, wife of Sir Richard Harrington, was Margery's heir. In 1430 this manor was settled on Edmund Pilkington and his heirs male, with remainders to Elizabeth Harrington, and Sir John Pilkington another son of Margery. It afterwards came to Thomas Pilkington son of Edmund, who settled it in 1459–60 upon himself in tail, with remainder to Roger his brother and others. Thomas was attainted in 1485, and his lands were forfeited to the Crown. This manor was granted in 1489 to Thomas earl of Derby and his heirs male. He was succeeded in 1504 by his grandson Thomas, son of George Stanley, Lord Le Strange. Thomas died in 1521, leaving his son Edward a minor, to whom livery of the manor was made in 1530–1. He died in 1572, when it came to his son Henry, on whose death in 1593 it passed to his son Ferdinand, who died without heirs in 1594. The reversion, which belonged to the queen, had already been granted in 1582 to William Godfrey or Cowper and his heirs.

William sold the manor in 1595 to Richard Hale, who died seised of it in 1621, leaving William his son and heir. The manor had however been settled by Richard on Rose, wife of William, and after her husband's death in 1633 she held the manor for life. She outlived her two elder sons, William and Rowland, and on her death the manor passed to her youngest son John, who died in 1672, leaving issue a daughter, Rose, wife of Sir John Austen. From Sir John and Rose the manor came to their son Sir Robert Austen, who sold it in 1703, with the park of Stagenhoe, to Robert Heysham of London.

Robert Heysham died in 1722, leaving one son, Robert, aged ten at the time of his father's death. Robert Heysham Jr. died unmarried in 1734, and bequeathed the estate to his kinsman, Giles Thornton, on condition of his taking the additional name of Heysham. The mansion which had been built in 1650 or 1660 was burnt down in 1737, and was rebuilt about 1740. At that time a two-story dwelling, the third floor was a later addition. On the death of Giles in 1767 the manor came to his son Robert Thornton Heysham, who was succeeded in 1781 by his son Robert.

In 1810 William Thomson and Ann his wife conveyed it to Robert John Harper, but this conveyance was probably made for a settlement, for in 1833 Robert Heysham and Sarah his wife conveyed the manor to Richard Sparkes, who may have been a trustee for Captain Arthur Duncombe, who sold this manor in 1843 to Henry Rogers. Henry died in 1866, and was succeeded by his son Henry, who sold the manor about 1869 to James, fourteenth earl of Caithness, whose trustees sold it about seventeen years ago to Mr. William B. Hawkins, the present possessor."

Sir Robert Austen, bart., also sold the manor of Weston to Robert Heysham in 1703. Weston remained in the family unti 1852 when it was sold to Samuel Adams.

"Robert Heysham, Draper" was elected as Alderman for the Billingsgate ward of London on 14 January 1720 and served until his death on 26 February 1723. He was thus part of the upper echelons of England’s commercial elite. There was an Alderman for each of the 26 Wards in London, elected by the business leaders of their community, not the general populace. One of the members was elected by them each year to be the Lord Mayor of the City.

Billingsgate

Between 1760 and 1766 the last gates of London, including the Billings Gate, and their medieval walls, were torn down. Billingsgate is one of the 26 wards of London, and so called from a quay or water-gate on the Thames. It is below London bridge on the north side of the Thames. Its boundaries.- N., Little East-cheap and several tenements adjoining; S., The Thames; E., Smart's quay, now Custom-house-stairs; W., Monument-yard and Pudding-lane. Stow enumerates five churches:- St. Botolph, (destroyed in the Fire, and not rebuilt); St. Mary-at-Hill; St. Margaret Pattens; St. Andrew Hubbert, (destroyed in the Fire, and not rebuilt); St. George in Botolph-lane. Off Pudding-lane (to the east) and near Little Eastcheap, is Butcher's Hall. Its famous market was originally a general market for corn, coal, iron, wine, salt, pottery, fish and miscellaneous goods and did not become associated exclusively with the fish trade until the sixteenth century when, in 1698, Parliament gave it a monopoly.

Of this ancient ward all should know,
Named after King Belin centuries ago.
A dock on the Thames or water gate,
Where trade abounded at a constant rate,
Eventually became a fish market for 600 years,
Now moved down river for which we shed tears.
The Great Fire started here in Pudding Lane,
In the King's baker shop, hardly to blame,
Fanning the flames, wind up to her tricks,
Burned down old London in 1666.

Billingsgate is also a word, referring to the kind of foul language that could be expected in a fish market. For example, "He uttered a stream of billingsgate more inventive than a Marine Drill Instructor could master."


The Alderman

The office of Alderman dates back to the medieval period. References to aelder-man or 'elder men' can be traced back to Saxon times, but the first mention of an alderman of London by name appears in 1111. The Court of Aldermen administered the City before the evolution of the Court of Common Council, but its functions contracted as those of Common Council developed. Today the full Aldermanic Court, summoned and presided over by the Lord Mayor, meets on about nine Tuesdays in the year in the Aldermen's Court Room in Guidhall. At Court of Aldermen meetings, aldermen wear violet gowns and fur-trimmed scarlet gowns and chains of office are worn on certain ceremonial occasions.

Aldermen have jurisdiction over their Wards and for centuries the 26 Wards of the City have each elected one alderman. Upon admission to the Court of Aldermen, an alderman automatically becomes a Justice of the Peace for the City of London. They also serve on Common Council committees, act as governors and trustees of a variety of schools, hospitals, charitable foundations and trusts with ancient City connections and are also occupied with livery companies, ceremonial events and Freedoms of the City.

Up until 1394 alderman were chosen annually, but since then they have been elected for life. The right of voting for aldermen is vested in those freemen who are resident householders. By the way, each Alderman had a Beadle. Even today these men dress in "Dickens" style, with tricorn hat, a long cloak and carrying a long mace. The mace was a weapon used for protection of the Alderman. His duties are similar to a policeman, he provides escort to the Alderman, protects him, and opens and closes the meetings which he attends. The Beadle is also charged with summoning the 'wardmote,' a meeting of the free men of the ward. Most of the livery companies have their own Beadles.


Freedom of the City

One of the oldest surviving traditional ceremonies still in existence today is the granting of the Freedom of the City of London. It is believed that the first freedom was presented in 1237. The medieval term 'freeman' meant someone who was not the property of a feudal lord, but enjoyed privileges such as the right to earn money and own land. Town dwellers who were protected by the charter of their town or city were often free - hence the term 'freedom of the City'.

As an Alderman Robert would also be a liveryman of one of the city’s great Livery Companies, the modern descedants of the medieval trade guilds.

The Livery Companies

Trade and craft associations known as guilds or livery companies have flourished all over Europe for a thousand years and were common during the eleventh and twelfth centuries with the rise of the towns. They were originally voluntary associations or fraternities with religious and social objectives. The craft element grew almost incidentally, largely because people of`the same craft tended then to live in the same locality. The word 'guild' derives from the Saxon word for payment, since membership was paid for. Livery' refers to the clothing worn as means of identification. These distinctive costumes were common in the Middle Ages, all great households providing their dependants and armed retainers with a livery (or uniform).

The religious side of the fraternities influenced the character of the guilds, encouraging good fellowship and hospitality within the fraternities. Meetings for funerals or masses were followed by feasts which, as the fraternity (later the guild) prospered, grew more and more elaborate - leading to the entertainments for which the Companies are still famous. The early companies were the medieval equivalent of trading standards departments, checking quality of goods and weights and measures. They also controlled imports, set wages and working conditions and trained apprentices.

From medieval times until the mid-19th century the Craft Guilds of London, better known as the City Livery Companies, were closely connected with the freedom of the City of London. Liverymen had to be freemen of the City, and in this way the Corporation of London managed to exercise a degree of control over the livery companies.

The first mention of London Guilds occurs in the Exchequer Roll of 1130, referring to dues owed to the crown by the Weavers. The 'Goldsmiths of London' are referred to as though they were already an organised body. In the same century associations of Bakers, Pepperers (afterwards a branch of the Grocers' Company), Clothworkers, Butchers, Turners, Cooks and Coopers all appear to have existed. These were probably already long established bodies. Throughout the years, certain of the Livery Companies have become defunct, for example the Silk-throwers, Silkmen, Pinmakers, Soapmakers, Hatbandmakers, Long-bow Stringmakers, Woodmongers, Starchmakers and Fishermen. But others have been created; in 2000 the 101st and 102nd livery companies were granted their charters (the Water Conservators and World Traders, respectively).

Robert was Master of the Drapers' Company of London for 1720-1.

Robert was President of Christ’s Hospital from 1721 until his death. The governors of this philanthropic organization constituted some of the most influential London businessmen, including Micajah Perry, William Heysham's father-in-law (see below). Sir John Moore, Lord Mayor of London from 1681 to 1682, was a President, serving from 1684 to 1702. Samuel Pepys, the diarist, was a Governor and established the School of Mathematics at Christ’s Hospital. Its graduates were intended to serve in the Royal Navy.

Christ's Hospital

This was not a hospital in the contemporary sense. In 1552 Bishop Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London, made a plea to King Edward VI, the 'boy king', to establish three institutions to care for the sick, needy and destitute children of a strife-torn London. The Reformation and the switch from farming crops to rearing livestock had savagely reduced the opportunities for work amongst the rural population, many of whom gravitated towards London in search of new ways to earn a living. The result was deprivation on a grand scale.

Christ's Hospital, Bridewell Royal Hospital (now King Edward's School) and St Thomas' Hospital were founded to address this issue and they still thrive today, and still follow their founding purpose to a remarkable degree. Christ's Hospital provided for 'fatherless children and other poor men's children' in the former premises of Grey Friars in Newgate Street; the hospital of St Thomas the Apostle cared for 'the lame, aged and homeless' and King Edward granted the palace of Bridewell, beside the Thames in the vicinity of Fleet Street, for 'idle and lusty rogues' to be taught a worthwhile trade.

Christ’s Hospital was established in 1553 for the benefit of orphaned children or those made homeless by impecunious parents. If they were legitimate children of free men of the City of London, over four years of age and free from obvious infirmity, they were to be educated and prepared either for entrance to a university or apprenticeship to a trade. From the late 17th century, up to 150 children were admitted annually to the "Bluecoat School," so-called from its distinctive uniform, long blue ankle length coats over yellow socks and knee breeches, on recommendation of their parishes, and a further ninety or so under the terms of charitable endowments. But as early as 1617 large numbers of these scholars took "articles" and left England to serve apprenticeships in America. Beginning with those children apprenticed to the Virginia Company in 1617, about 1,000 Christ's Hospital students left England to take up such apprenticeships.

The Duke of Gloucester is the current President of the Hospital.

The political climate in London had favored the Whigs after the succession of the Hanoverian Kings. In the election of 1722, however, public disaffection swept many from Parliament, including Robert, who was a mild anit-ministerialist. I suspect this means the election "for the Parliament of 1722" which occurred in 1721.

Jane Thornton Heysham died on 13 February 1722 according to the Musgraves Obituaries. The same source shows that Robert followed her on 26 February 1723.

"About the 25th day of 12th month, 1722-3, Robert Heysam, of London, died, who had been representative in parliament for Lancaster, from 1698, and was a very great benefactor to the town in general, and to many [in] particular, and generous to all, without partiality in respect to religious profession." - from "Autobiography of William Stout, of Lancaster, Wholesale and Retail Grocer and Ironmonger" by William Stout
William Stout was a Quaker merchant. Robert was buried at Stagenhoe on 5 March. The following is from a receipt book at Knebworth, the great house of Robert's niece, Elizabeth Heysham Lytton.
"For money paid on account of Robert Heysham, Alderman, died 25 Feb (William Robinson Lytton was an executor of Robert's will)" - from "Title deeds, estate papers, family papers and other official papers of the Lytton family of Knebworth House, Hertfordshire."
At St. Paul’s Walden Church, at left, on the floor of the chancel are the following:
Monumental Inscriptions: St. Paul's Walden Church
. . . Arms, an anchor, and on a chief three roundels [Heysham], impaling a chevron between three sprigs of --- [Thornton]. "Here lieth interred the body of JANE HEYSHAM, wife of Robert Heysham, Esq., of Stagenhoe, who departed this life the 16th day of February, 1721 [1722 per the Gregorian calendar]. Here also lyeth the body of ROBERT HEYSHAM, of Stagenhoe, Esq., who was born in Lancaster, and served that corporation in parliament fifteen years, and the city of London seven years, who died an alderman of the said city the 25th day of February, anno Domini 1722 [1723 per the Gregorian calendar], in the 60th year of his age. He left issue only one son, Robert Heysham, in the 10th year of his age." - from "Hertfordshire 1731 to 1800: As Recorded in the Gentleman's Magazine" by Arthur Jones
I wonder where Robert's first wife, Mary, was buried?

I have a will for a Robert Heysham, Merchant of London, signed on 20 October 1722 and proved on 15 March 1723.

"In the Name of God Amen
this twentieth day of October Anno Din 1722 and in the Ninth Year of the Reigne of our Soveraigne Lord George over Great Brittaine. Robert Heysham of London Merchant considering the uncertainty of this transitory life and being desirious to settle my Estate and Affairs so as no difference may arise there upon among my Relations after my decease Do make and declare this my last Will and Testament in manner and forme following (that is to say).

First and principally comending my soul into the hands of Almighty God my most mericifull Creator assuredly trusting for salvation through the only Meerits of Jesus Christ my alone Savior and Redeemer.

And my body committ to Ground decently but without needless pomp or Ceremony in the Church of St Pauls Walden in the County of Hertford to be interred the Expenses thereof (intending such things as may be thought proper to be disposed of) not to exceed the sume of five hundred pounds.

And I do request and desire that Doctor Snape (If he shall be then living) do preach my Funeral Sermon upon the Text Psalm 63: Verse the 1st. [“0 God, Thou art my God, earnestly I seek thee, my soul thirsts for thee; my flesh faints for thee, as in a dry and weary land where no water is.”]

And as [concerning] that worldly Estate wherewith it hath pleased God to intrust me I give devise and dispose of the same as followeth, vizt,

Imprimis
, I give and bequeth to my brother in law Robert Carter the sume of one hundred pounds for Mourning and unto his daughter Margarett Cunliffe and her husband one hundred pounds for their Mourning.

Item, I give and bequeth unto my Cousin John Thornton of Preston Esq. the Sume of one hundred pounds and I give and bequeth unto him and to his wife and son twenty pounds apiece for Mourning.

Item, I give and bequeth unto John, Giles and Robert Thornton the three children of my brother in law Edmund Thornton and Elizabeth his wife both deceased the sume of twenty pounds apiece for Mourning.

Item, I give and bequeth unto my Sister Hester Barker Widow the sume of two hundred pounds and to her two daughters Elizabeth and Jane the sume of hundred pounds apiece and I give unto my said sister Barker and her two daughters and to her son in law Mr. Hall twenty pounds apiece for Mourning.

Item, I give and bequeth unto my Nephew William Heysham two hundred pounds for Mourning.

Item, I give and bequeth unto William Robinson Esqr. and my Niece Elizabeth his wife and their children for Mourning the sume of five hundred pounds.
Item, I give and bequeth unto Mrs [Frances?] sister of the said William Robinson Esqr twenty pounds for Mourning.

Item, I give unto Doctor Snape in case he preach my Funeral Sermon as herein before desired Ten Guineas.

Item, I give and bequeth unto Thomas Withers of Barbadoes to be paid or allowed him in Barbadoes for Mourning One hundred pounds current money, unto Mr. Thomas Harison there for Mourning twenty pounds current Money. [Withers and Harison were "good friends," perhaps business partners, who both lived in St. Michael parish, Barbados. Withers was probably a sugar merchant, and was known to be a significant slave trader, or "factor."]

Item, I give and bequeth to Capt. William Harrison Gent. twenty pounds Sterling for Mourning and unto my Godson Thomas Tower and unto my Godson Gibson twenty pounds Sterling each for Mourning.

Item, I give and bequeth to Mrs. Martha Gerrard and her daughter ten pounds each for Mourning.

Item, I give and bequeth unto the Governors of Christs Hospital in London for the use of the poor children belonging to the said hospital the sume of five hundred pounds.

Item, I give and bequeth unto the Corporation of Lancaster the sume of three hundred pounds and it is my express Will and Mind that the Several Legacies before by me given Except the Several Legacies for Mourning which are to be forthwith paid shall be paid to my Legatees respectively within one Year next after my decease And that the Receipt or Receipts of the Respective Parents or Guardians of Such Legatees as shall not be of Competent Age at that time to receive the same shall be a Sufficient discharge.

Item, I give and bequeth the sume of one hundred and twenty pounds unto the parish of St. Pauls Walden aforesaid to be laid out by the Minister and Churchwardens of the said parish in the purchasing of Land to be appropriated for paying weekly for ever two shillings for bread to be distributed weekly by the Churchwardens of the said parish to the poor thereof.

Item, I give and bequeth unto my Friend Mr. Edward Dodd of London Linnen Draper One hundred pounds for Mourning.

Item, I give to all my Servants at Yearly Wages both at Stagenhoe and in London that shall be living with me at the time of my decease ten pounds apiece for Mourning.

All the rest and residue of my personal Estate I give and bequeth unto my said Nephew William Robinson and my said Friend Mr. Edward Dodd In Trust for the placeing out the same on good Securities to be improved for my son Robert's benefit and to be paid my said son Robert at his Age of twenty one Years In case he shall be then living but in Case of his decease leaving Issue then the same to be paid to such Issue my said Son or such his Issue paying into or allowing thereof to my said Nephew William Heysham if then living the sume of Five Thousand pounds which in such case I hereby give unto him but in Case of my said Sons decease before he shall have attained his said Age of twenty one years without Issue Then I give and bequeth the Residue of my said personal Estate and the Improvements thereon made unto my said Nephew William Heysham in case he shall be then living but in case of his decease leaving Issue then I give the same to such his Issue but in case my said Nephew shall be then deceased without Issue In such case I give and bequeth the same unto and among the children of my Nephew Robinson and the children of my Sister Barker that shall be then living in equal proportions to be divided among them.

Item, I do hereby constitute and appoint my said Nephew William Robinson and the said Mr. Edward Dodd Executors of this my Will And I do hereby Authorize and empower my said Executors and the Survivour of them to compound any desperate or dubious Debt.

Item, as for and concerning my Real Estate both Free hold and Copyhold I give devise and bequeth unto my said Nephew John Thornton All that Messauge or Tenement called Castlehill house and a Field called Kellett's Croft and the Barn there with the Appurtenances Situate and being in the Town and parish of Lancaster formerly my late wife's Father's Estate, now in the Occupation of my said Brother Robert Carter, or his Assignes To hold the said Croft and Barne with the Appurtenances from and immediately after my decease to my said Newphew John Thornton his heirs and Assignes for ever which premisses being part of the Estate settled on my said late wife my Will is that my said son Robert and his heirs shall confirme this my Bequest to the said John Thornton and his heirs And in default thereof my Will is that there be paid to my said Nephew John Thornton his heirs and Assignes the sume of five hundred pounds. [Was Kellet Croft related to Over/Nether Kellet, the villages? Castlehill appears to refer to the eminence in Lancaster where the castle is perched. It has several Georgian buildings, right.]

Item, my Estate at Stagenhoe in the parish of St. Pauls Walden and my Estate in the parishes of Munden Hoddesdon and Weston or elsewhere in the County of Hertfordshire and my Estate in Lancashire and Essex and all other my Freehold and Copyhold Estate wheresoever Subject to my just Debts and Legacies in Case of any Deficiency of my personal Estate and to the said Five hundred pounds in case of Default as aforesaid I give devise and bequeth unto my said son Robert and the heirs of his body but in case of his decease without Issue Then I give devise and bequeth all that my Manor of Little Munden with the perpetual Advowson of the Church there and all my Estate in the parish of Munden in the county of Hertford unto my Niece Elizabeth Robinson and her heirs for ever.

Item, all the Rest and Residue of my Estate whatsoever from and after the decease of my said Son without Issue I give devise and bequeth the same to my said Nephew William Heysham and the heirs of his body and for want of such issue to my Neice Elizabeth Robinson and her heirs for ever.

And I do hereby direct that my said Executors pay or apply out of the Rents and profits of the Estates bequethed to my said Son by Quarterly payments for his Maintenance and Education during his Nonage of Ten years the Annual sume of two hundred pounds clear of all Deductions And from then until he attaine the Age of Fifteen Years the Annual sume of three hundred pounds clear of all Deductions and from then until he attaine the full age of twenty one Years the Annual sume of four hundred pounds clear of all deductions.

And I do hereby direct That my house and premises of Stagenhoe be kept in good repair during my said Son's Nonage and that a sume not exceeding two hundreds pounds be allowed at the discretion of my Executors for keeping of servants and takeing care of my said house and premises at Stagenhoe and the above directed Maintenances being thereof allowed my said son and the above mentioned Repairs and Expenses deducted the Surpluss of the Rents and profits which shall be received I do hereby direct to be put out at Interest on good Security to be improved for him and I have directed the Residue of my personal Estate and to be to him paid at his Age of twenty one years in case he so long live otherwise the same to go and be paid to such person or persons as in the like case the said Residue of my said personal Estate is by this my Will directed to be paid and I do hereby empower my said Executors to lease or lett my said Estates at their improved Rents for no longer a Term than my son shall be under the Age of twenty one years and also that my said Executors imploy such proper persons and allow such reasonable Sallaries as they shall think fitt.

And it is my Intent and Will That neither of my said Executors shall be answerable for the Acts of the other of them but each of them for his own Act only and Receipt And in case any Loss should happen in the placeing out of Interest any Monye the Same shall not be accounted for or answered for by either of them without their willfull default.

And Lastly revoking hereby all former Wills by me made I do hereby declare this to be my last Will and Testament In Witness whereof I have this my last Will contained in Eight sheets of paper fixt together with my Seal set my hand and seal the twentieth day of October 1722 first above written.

Rob. Heysham, Signed Sealed published and declared by the Testator Robert Heysham Esqr to be his last Will and Testament in the presence of us who in his presence at his request hereunto Subscribe our Names In Witness thereof this twentyeth day of October 1722, Henry Hellar, John Witherington, John Marsh."
A codicil was added.
"I Robert Heysham of London Merchant
Codicill to my last Will and Testament by me sometime since published and declared Do hereby declare my Mind and Will to be that my said Will be in all things confirmed other then and Except I give and bequeth hereby unto Giles Thornton the further sume of One hundred pounds and unto Mary Mellor in case she shall be living with me at my decease the sume of One hundred pounds And unto Thomas [?] in case he shall be living with me as my decease the sume of Fifty pounds And I do hereby Subject the Freehold Esates by me bequethed unto my son Robert unto the payment of twelve pounds And clear of all Deduction by half yearly payments from my decease unto Mary Roberts (now living with me) during her natural life And from and after her decease unto he payment of ten pounds And clear of all Deductions by half yearly payments unto Elizabeth Roberts the daughter of the said Mary Roberts untill she attaine her Age of twenty Years for her support untill she attain that Age in Case she shall not be retained in the family.

In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this [blank] Day of December 1722 - Signed Sealed published and declared by the above named Robert Heysham as a Codicill to his last Will and Testament and to be taken as part thereof In the presence of us who at his request hereunto Subscribed our Names In Witness thereof this [blank] Day of December 1722.
A further codicill was added after Robert's death.
Which day appeared personally John Marsh of Haberdashers Hall London Guildman and William Rhodes of Billiter Square London Merchant and by virtue of their Corporal Oaths deposed as followeth to wit the said John Marsh deposed that he the Deponent is one of the Subscribed Witnesses to the last Will and Testament of Robert Heysham late of London Merchant and Alderman of Billingsgate Ward London And that some time in the Month of December last past the said deceased gave the Deponent directions for adding some Legacies to his the deceased then servants and as part of his Instructions for so doing delivered to him the Deponent the schedule hereunto annexed [Qes:s:o] whereon then was wrote with the deceased own hand as the Deponent believes the following particulars vizt . . ." [names, including G. Thornton, and monetary values follow]
Most of this last codicill is of little interest (and hard to read), but it does contain a line that confirms that Robert's London home was in Billiter Square and notes his Compting House, both of which are noted under Robert Jr., below. It also makes clear that Robert Sr. was obsessed in his last days with this will and carried it about with him, making amendments to it. This second codicill continues.
"And the said William Rhodes deposed that he lived as Clerk with the deceased for Several Years next before and untill the time of his death and was well acquainted with his hand writing and verily believed the following particulars (vizt) . . . [names and monetary values repeated] . . . and the Deponent Did Several times between the month of December last and his the deceased's death See his aforesaid Will bearing Date the twentieth of October aforesaid and the aforesaid Codicill or schedule No. 2 amongst his the deceased's writeings and papers of Concern in his Desk in his Counting house and read both the Will and Schedule Several times over And the Deponent was present with the said Mr. Marsh and the deceased's aforesaid Executors, William Heysham Esq., and others at the time the deceased aforesaid Will and schedule No. 2 was brought down from his aforesaid Room next his bedchamber to his dineing Room below Stairs, the time the same was said to be found by his Executors shortly after his death."
William Rhodes was later tried for forgery by William Heysham, below.

Robert's children were,
(20) Jane Heysham (1708)
(20) Robert Heysham (1713)

(20) Jane Heysham (1708)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635) (19) Robert Heisham (1663)

Robert and Jane's only daughter. She was born on 18 September 1708 and christened on the 23rd at St Andrew Hubbard With St Mary At Hill, London, England. At Paul’s Walden Church, on the floor of the chancel are:

Monumental Inscriptions: St. Paul's Walden Church
Arms-Heysham impaling Thornton.
"M.S. Here lieth the body of Jane Heysham, daughter of Robert Heysham, of Stagenhoe, Esq., who died the 14th of November, 1711, aged three years two months." - from "Hertfordshire 1731 to 1800: As Recorded in the Gentelman's Magazine" by Arthur Jones

(20) Robert Heysham (1713)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635) (19) Robert Heisham (1663)

Robert, the son of Robert Heysham and Jane, was baptized on 22 May 1713 at St Andrew Hubbard With St Mary At Hill, London, England. Note that Robert Sr. lived in the St Andrew Hubbard district of London. Robert Jr. was only 10 years old when his father died in 1723. "Robert, orphan of" Robert Heysham, citizen and alderman, draper, was listed on in the Orphan's Inventory of the Court of Orphans for the City of London.

In a book of accounts of the Lytton family, 1723-1732, is a reference to "monies received and disbursed for R Heysham esquire." This implies that Robert maintained the relationship with the Lytton family begun by his father and uncle.

In 1726, at the age of 14 [?], he was a witness at a trial for forgery where William Heysham, his cousin, was plaintiff. While this seems odd, the elder Robert Heysham had died in 1722 so this couldn't be him. Robert Jr. was living in-town in Billiter-Square. He was listed as having a Compting-House.

Billiter Square

In old London, within the 'square mile' of the old Roman city wall, in Aldgate Ward, a few hundred yards northwest of the Tower of London. The square is off Fenchurch Avenue, just west of Billiter street. Lime Street is at the end of Fenchurch Avenue [isn't that where the Lloyd's of London headquarters is and the older building designed by Terrence Heysham?].

The London Encyclopaedia states that Billiter takes its name from the belleyesterers or bellfounders who lived in the area. Voltaire took lodgings here during his exile in England. Disraeli's maternal grandfather, Nathan Basevi, and Cardinal Manning's father, William Manning, Director of the Bank of England, both lived here.

Hatton, in 1708, refered to it "as very samll, but pleasant and good buildings." Strype, writing in 1720, said the street used to be "full of poor and ordinary houses inhabited by beggarly people," the origin of the saying "a bawdy beggar of Billiter Lane." However, Strype noted new buildings which would eventually create a more upscale square. It was the home to a number of merchants, including John Dawson, William Manning [also above], Robert & Hugn Ingram, John Shakespeare, Aaron Franks, John Currie, Joseph Horsley, John and William Gilliat, and the firm of Graham, Clark and Company. The square was largely rebuilt in 1894. West India House was located there.


Compting-House

A typically English variation on 'Counting House.' It was a place where rows of accountants worked long hous on the company books and, often, where a great deal of the company's operating funds were stored. It was the nerve center of a company's business. The office of Scrooge & Marley in Dicken's "Christmas Carol" was a Compting House.

Also in 1726,

30 May 1726. "1. £2 for a fine in the Manor of Argentine from William Honor.
2. £3 for a fine in the Manor of Weston from William Honor.
Receipted by Edward Dod, executor to Robert Heysham, esq"
Because Robert Jr. was yet so young, I assume Edward Dodd continued to manage his father's estate.

I have a subscription for the Gentleman’s Magazine which is specifically listed as being for a Robert Heysham who "died 9 July 1734, sometime one of the Representatives of this City [London]." This date of death is confirmed in Musgrave’s. He would have been only 21 years old. Did he "inherit" his father's office of Alderman and/or Member of Parliament?

July 1734. "At this Seat at Stagenhoe in Hertfordshire, Robert Heysham, Esq; only Son of Robert Heysham, Esq.; formerly one of the Representatives in Parliament for this City: He being a Batchelor has left his whole Estate (except 5000l. to Mrs. Robinson [Lytton]) to his first Cousins, Giles and Robert Thornton, Brothers." - from "The General Index . . . London Magazine"
Also,
July 1734. "19. Robert Heysham, Esq; only Son to the late Robert Heysham, Esq; some time one of the Representatives of this City. He left a large estate to his first Cousins, Giles and Robert Thornton, Brothers." - from "The Gentleman's Magazine"

Robert Heysham of Stagenhoe, Hertfordshire left a will signed 6 July 1734 and proved on 24 October 1734. It devised Stagenhoe with other estates to his kinsman Giles Thornton of St. Botolph’s, Aldgate, for life, remainder to his son Robert (I believe this probably refers to Giles Thornton's son, not Robert's) for life, remainder to the first and other sons of the last named Robert successively intail male, remainder to Robert Thornton the elder, upon his taking the additional name of Heysham. For their descent, see the Thornton-Heysham page.

Will of Robert Heysham {Sentence promulgated for the validity of this will the 24th of October 1734}

In the Name of God Amen
I Robert Heysham of Stagenhoe in the parish of St. Pauls Walden in the county of Hertford Esquire do make and ordain this my Last Will and Testament in manner following.
First I do hereby charge all my Manors Park Messuages Lands Tenements and Hereditainments whatsoever in the said county of Hertford and in the county of Essex with an annuity or Yearly Rent of One hundred and Twenty pounds to the Rev'd. Mr. Benjamin Howell my late Tutor now residing with me and I do hereby Will and require the respective person and persons who shall by virtue of this my Will be in possession of my said Manors and premises hereby charged as aforesaid from time to time to pay the same annuity unto the said Benjamin Howell and his Assigns during the Term of the natural life of the said Benjamin Howell on the four most usual ffeasts or days of payment in the year that is to say On the ffeast day of Saint Michael the Archangel the Nativity of our Lord Christ the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary and Saint John the Baptist by even and equal portions thearof all manner of Taxes Deductions or Reprizes whatsoever the first payment thereof to begin and to be made on the first of the said ffeast days as shall happen next after my decease and do hereby Ordain that it shall be lawfull for the said Benjamin Howell or his Assigns from time to time and as often as the said Annuity shall be in arrear to Enter and Distrain on any part of the said hereby charged premisses and such Distress or Distresses to hold keep and Demean accordingly to Law untill such Annuity with the arrears thereof together with the charges of such Distress be fully paid and Satisfyed according to this my Will.
I Give and Bequeth unto my Servant and park-keeper Robert Chipperfield the house and ground which he now occupys under me To hold the same unto the said Robert Chipperfield and his Assigns Rent free during the Term of his natural Life only.
I do hereby Give and Bequeth unto my Dear Kinsman Robert Thornton the Elder late of London Brewer but now residing with me All the Estate whatsoever both Reall and Personall heretofore the Estate of my Kinsman William Heysham Esquire late of East Greenwich in the County of Kent deceased, Subject nevertheless to the payment and Satisfaction of such and so much of the Debts of him the said William Heysham as now remain and are yet unpaid and unsatisfied.
An I do hereby for my Self and my Executors Release [Exouerate] and Discharge him the said Robert Thornton and the said Estate late of the said William Heysham of and from all [Rummus] of money which have been any ways advanced and paid out of my own Estate or account of the Debts Legacys and ffunerall Expenses of the said William Heysham.
I Give Devise and Bequeth unto my Cousin the Widow Elizabeth Robinson Lytton of Knebworth in the county of Hertford aforesaid All my Reall Estate whatsoever at Lancaster and OVerton in the county palantine of Lancaster To have and to hold the same unto the said Elizabeth Robinson Lytton and her heirs forever; And I also Give unto her the Sum of Two thousand pounds in money.
I also Give and bequeth unto all my Servants that shall be living with me at the time of my decease Mourning at the discretion of my Executors.
And unto my Servant John Males I give the sum of Thirty pounds in money.
I Give and Bequeth unto my Aunt Mrs. Hester Barker the sume of ffive hundred pounds.
And unto my good ffriend Edward Dod of London Merchant the Sum of One hundred pounds.
All the Rest Residue and Remainder of my Lands Tenements and Hereditainments whatsoever and wheresoever whereof For any other person or persons In Trust for me is or are Seised possessed either in possession Reversion Remainder or Expectancy (Subject neverthelesse to the payment of all my Just Debts Legacys and Annuity before mentioned and my ffunerall Expenses in case of any Deficioncy of my personall Estate for those purposes) I Give Devise and Bequeth the same unto my Dear Kinsman Giles Thornton of the parish of Saint Buttolph Aldgate London Gentleman for and during the Term of his natural life without Impeachment of or for any manner of [Wast].
And from and after his decease I Give Devise and Bequeth the same unto Robert Thornton the younger the only Son of the said Giles Thornton for and during the Term of his natural Life without Impeachment of [Wast].
And from and after the death of the said Giles Thornton and Robert Thornton the younger and the death of the Survivor of them Then I give Devise and Bequeth the same unto William Guy of London Brewer and the before named Edward Dod and their heirs In Trust to support and preserve the Contingent uses and Remainders thereof herein after limited from being Barred and Destroyed and for that purposs to make Entries or bring Actions as occasion shall require But nevertheless to permit and suffer the said Giles Thornton during his Life and afterwards the said Robert Thornton the younger to receive and take the Rents Issues and Profits thereof during their respective lives and from and after both their decease Then to the use and behoofe of the ffirst son of the said Robert Thornton the younger lawfully to be begotten and the heirs Male of the body of such first son lawfully issuing.
And for default of such Issue To the use and behoof of the second third ffourth ffifth sixth and all and every other Son and Sons of the body of the same Robert Thornton Successively as they shall be in seniority of age and priority of Birth and the heirs male of the respective Bodys of such sons lawfully issuing the Elder of such Sons and the heirs male of his body being always to be preferred and to take before the younger of such sons and the heirs male of his and their body and bodys issuing.
And for default of such Issue Then to the use of behoofe of the second son of the body of the said Giles Thornton lawfully begotten or to be begotten and to the heirs male of the body of such second son lawfully issuing.
And for default of such Issue to the Third ffourth ffifth Sixth and all and every other son and sons of the body of the said Giels Thornton lawfully begotten or to be begotten severally and successively as the shall be in seniority of age and priority of Birth The Elder son and the heirs male of the respective bodys of such last mentioned sons lawfully issuing being ever preferred and to take before the younger of such sons and the heirs maile of his and their body or bodys.
And for default of such Issue To the use of behoofe of the said Robert Thornton the elder for and during the Term of his natural life without Impeachment of or for any manner of [Wast].
And from and his decease To the use of behoofe of the first son of the said Robert Thornton the elder lawfully to be begotten and the heirs male of the body of such ffirst son lawfully issuing.
And for default of such Issue To the use and behoofe of the second, third . . .
Provided nevertheless and my Will and meaning is that the said Giles Thornton Robert Thornton the younger and Robert Thornton the elder and every of them their and every of their Sons and the Issue male of such Sons when and as soon as they shall respectively come in possession of my said Estates hereby Entailed as aforesaid by Virtue of this my Will shall Write Assume and take upon him and their repectively the additional name of Heysham; and in case any person who shall claim by or under the Limitations aforesaid any Estate or Interest in the premises last before herein devises shall refuse or neglect to take upon him such Name of Heyshall All the Estate herein limited to the person neglecting or refusing so to do shall from thenceforth cease and dederming, And the premises shall go to the next person in remainder according to this my Will that shall comply therewith provided likewise and my Will and meaning is that it shall and maybe lawfull and I do hereby Empower the respective Tenants for Life of the premisses last before mentioned as and when they shall respectively cme into possession thereof by virtue of this my Will To make or grant Leases so as the same Deceeds not one and twenty years in possession and so as the best and most Improved yearly Rents be always reserved that can be had or gotten for the same and that the respective Issues therein named shall Execute Counterparts thereof.
And lastly I do hereby Give and Bequeth all the residue of my personal Estate after my Debts Legacys and ffunerall Expenses paid and Satisfied unto my said Kinsman Giles Thornton and I do hereby ordain and constitute him the said Giles Thornton and the said Robert Thornton the elder Executors of this my Will and Revoaking all former Wills by me made I Declare this only to be my Last Will and Testament.
In Witnesse whereof I have to this my said Will wrote on Three Sheets of paper Set my hand to the first and Second and my hand and Seal to the last of the said Sheets this Sixth day of July in the Eighth year of the Reign of his present Majestic King George the Second and in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred and Thrity four.

Robert Heysham
Signed Sealed Published & Declared by the Testator Robert Heysham as and for his last Will and Testament in the presence of us who have subscribed our Names in his presence the word July being first Interlined.
W. Hatfield Is. Davies Wm. Townsend

This will was proved at London on the Twenty fourth day of October in the year of Our Lord One thousand Seven hundred and Thrity four before the Worshipfull Stephen Cottrell Doctor of Laws Surrogate of the Right Worshipfull John Bettesworth Doctor of Laws Master Keeper or Commissary of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury lawfully constituted by the oaths of Giles Thornton and Robert Thornton the elder the Executors named in the said Will to whom Adminstration of all and singular the Goods Chattels and Credits of the said deceased was granted they being first sworn duly to Administer the same. A Definitive Sentence being first pronounced and promulgated for the Validity of the said Will as by the arts of Court Sped thereupon do appear.

In the Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury I have a reference to a 'Sentence' of Robert Heysham, Batchelor of Saint Paul Walden, Hertfordshire also dated 24 October 1734. This marked the resolution of a law suit in which Elizabeth Heysham, the daughter of Giles Heysham and the widow of William Robinson-Lytton, who had died in 1732, contested Robert's will. This contest was, I suppose, based on Robert Sr's will of 1722 which stated that he gave all his estates "unto my said son Robert and the heirs of his body, but in case of his decease without Issue," then his estates went to Elizabeth. This will was written when Robert Jr. was only ten years old. While Robert Jr. had no heirs of his body, I imagine the court decided that 12 years on, as an adult, Robert Jr. was no longer bound by his father's intent and could make his own will.

"Sentence ffor the validity of the Will of Robert Heysham Esquire deceased:

In the Name of God Amen
We John Bettesworth Doctor of Laws Master Keeper or Commissary of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury lawfully constituted rightly and duely proceeding have heard seen and understood and fully and maturely discussed the Merits and Circumstances of a Business of proving by Witnesses the last Will and Testament in Writing of Robert Heysham late of Stagenhoe in the Parish of Saint Pauls Walden in the county of Hertford Esquire Batchelor deceased which is now controverted and remains undetermined before us in Judgment between Giles Thornton and Robert Thornton Executors named in the said Will of the said deceased the Partys promoting the said Business of the one part and Elizabeth Robinson Lytton Widow the Neice [sic] of the said deced the Party against whom the said Business is promoted of the other part and the Partys aforesaid lawfully appearing before us in Judgment by their proctors respectively and the proctor of the said Giles Thornton and Robert Thornton praying Sentence to be given and Justice to be done to his Partys and the Proctor of the said Elizabeth Robinson Lytton also earnestly praying to be done to his Party and having carfully and diligently searched into and considered of the whole proceedings had and done before us in this Business and haveing observed all and singular the Matters and Things that by Law in this behalf ought to be observed We have thought fit and do thus think fit to proceed to the giving our Definitive Sentence or final Decree in this Business in manner and form following.
For as much as We have by the arts enacted deemed alledged exhibited propounded proved and confessed in this Business found and clearly discovered that the proctor of the said Giles Thornton and Robert Thornton hath sufficiently and fully founded and proved his Intention deduced in a certain Allegation and last Will and Testament of the said Robert Heysham Esquire deceased and other pleadings and Exhibits given in exhibited and admitted on their behalf in this Business and now remaining in the Registry of this Court Which said Allegation last Will and Testament of the said deceased and other Matters propounded exhibited and admitted in this Business.
We take and will have taken as if here read and inserted for Us to pronounce as herein after named and that nothing at least effecting hath on the part on behalf of the said Elizabeth Robinson Lytton Widow been excepted deduced exhibited propounded proved or confessed in this Business which may or ought in any wise defeat weaken or prejudice the Intention of the said Giles Thornton and Robert Thornton.
Therefore We John Bettesworth Doctor of Laws the Judge aforesaid first calling upon God and setting him alone before our Eyes and having heard Councill thereupon do pronounce decree and declaire that the aforesaid Robert Heysham Esquire the Testator in this Cause deceased whilst living being of sound mind memory and understanding rightly and duely made his last Will and Testament in Writing and thereof named and appointed the said Giles Thornton and Robert Thornton Executors and did give will and bequeth and do in all things as therein is contained and We pronounce decree and declare for the fforce and validity of the said last Will and Testament of the said deceased and We also decree the probate of the said Will of the said deceased to pass under the Seal of this Court in the Names of the said Giles Thornton and Robert Thornton the Executors in the said Will named by this our Definitive Sentence or final Decree which We give and promulgate by these presents.

Stephen Cottrell John Bettesworth

This Definitive Sentence was read given and promulgated for the Validity of the said Will of the said deceased by the Right Worshipfull John Bettesworth Doctor of Laws Master Keeper or Commissary of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury lawfully constituted on the Twenty fourth day of October in the year of Our Lord One Thousand and Seven hundred and Thirty four in the Common Hall of Doctors Commons situate in the Parish of Saint Bennet [Gracechurch] near Pauls Wharfe London in the presence of the Witnesses mentioned and specified in the Arts of Court thereupon had and sped.
Why was Elizabeth referred to as Robert's niece? She was his cousin. John Bettesworth was the Principal Official of the Court of Arches and Judge of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. Doctors Commons, right, is located between Knightrider street, to the north, and Queen Victoria street, to the south, in London. It was a college, or common house, of Doctors of Law. It comprised the five courts; Court of Arches, Prerogative Court, Court of Faculties and Dispensations, Consistory Court of the Bishop of London, and High Court of the Admiralty. It was demolished in 1867.

(19) William Heesham (1667)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635)

"Willm Heesham f. Geyles of Lanc: . . . 27 January 1667," baptized at St. Mary’s, Lancaster. His father died when he was only 12 years old. Like his older brothers, William went to London in his youth and became an eminent merchant, trading with the West Indies. Before then, however, I believe he and Giles emigrated to Barbados, and was there by at least 1687, where they made their fortunes.

"Mr. William Heysham & Mrs. Elizabth: Brogdon" [Brockden] were married on 3/4 September 1687 in Saint Michael, Barbados, Caribbean - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800." She was born on 29 April 1671, the daughter and co-heir of Humphrey Brockden of Barbados. Humphrey was a member of the Barbados Assembly from 1699 to 1703. He may have been born, as Humfry Brokadon, on 25 July 1641 at Saint Petrox, Dartmought, Devon, the son of Peter and Thomasin Brokadon.

In the 1692/3 session Mr. William Haysham was chosen to be one of the overseers of the Poor for the year ensuing. - from "The Journal of the Barbados Museum." He was also listed as a vestryman in several different years.

"At a meeting of the Gentlemen of the Vestry the 15th Day of Janry. 1693 were chosen Surveyors, Overseers of the Poor, Churchwardens and Sidesmen for the year ensuing as followeth:
Mr. Wm. Hysam, Capt. Nicholas Minard [etc.] . . . Surveyors of the Highway"
"Ordered that Wm. Heysham Churchwarden do buy a pype of Maderia wine and a hhd. of ale and present to the Honble. Reverend Benja. Cryer for his extraordinary . . ." - from "The Journal of the Barbados Museum"

William was mentioned in the will of William Rogers, commander of the ship ALBERMARLE, 7 November 1694. "Mr. Isaac Woode to take charge of my ship and take it home to the owners; Mr. Gyles and William Heysham - Xtrs in trust." Proved 7 December 1694 - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800."

The West Indies kept up a good trade with the North American colonies and there was a special affinity between Barbados and South Carolina.

"July 20, 1697, Thomas Cary, Esq., of Charles Town, executed his bond to Edward Lascells and William Heysham, both of Barbadoes, guaranteeing the payment of three bills of exchange for L140., drawn by Philip Ostome, of Carolina, on Capt. Peter Colleton, of Bardadoes, payable to "Coll: Thomas Cary Receiver", and, in consideration of cash paid him by Ithiel Smart, endorsed over by him to the said Lascells and Heysham. Witnesses: William Smith and Hugh Hall." - from "The South Carolina Historical Magazine"

William was a member of the Barbados assembly from 1699 to 1703, he was included among “Representatives returned for the Assembly of Barbados on 17 April 1700 for St Michael.”

"Petition of William Heysham, merchant, for a drawback on 45 pipes of wine shipped off and 48 turned sour, read and recommended to the Assembly ...

William Heysham sworn a Member of the Assembly for St. Michael's Parish and a Justice of the Peace. His Excellency recommended the Assembly to consider the ...

William Heysham granted leave to bring in a Bill to remit the Powder Duty from vessels that put in here by extremity of weather or want of food and water, ...

George Peers and William Heysham empowered to hire any number of men not exceeding sixteen to guard the Magazine at a rate not exceeding 15 pence a day and ..."

- from "Calendar of state papers: Preserved in the Public Record Office" by Great Britain, Public Record Office.
He was appointed to the colony's committee of public accounts in 1700.

On 1 July 1700 William was mentioned in the Will of John Bates, merchant of St. Michael's Town, Barbados. John appears to have been a separate trader with Africa, that is a slave merchant, like the Heysham brothers, not aligned with the Africa Company.

". . . To be buried in parish church next to mo [sic] Lettice Bates if I die in Bdos [Barbados]; uncle George Cotterell's chn; cousins William Heysham & Elizabeth Heysham, son & dau of bro in law William Heysham Esq & Elizabeth his wf; Jennette Brewster & Elizabeth Brewster, daus of Thomas Brewster Esq; Capt. Edwin Clarke; Ursuller Fort, wf of . . . " - from "Barbados Records: Wills and Administrations" by Joanne Mcree Sanders, Barbados Dept. of Archives.
Since their eldest son, Giles, was not mentioned I assume he had died by this time. Note that Willliam Heysham Sr. was described as the brother-in-law of John Bates. Bates was not the husband of William's known sisters, Anne, Hester, or Elizabeth. Could Lettice have been a Heysham? The other possibility was that William's wife, Elizabeth, was John's sister, though she is on record as being a Brockden. Another researcher, Ernest Wiltshire, recently wrote,
"I think there is one of your queries I can answer regarding the relationship of John Bates to William Heysham: as he states in his will, he is William's brother-in-law, having married Thomasin, sister of William's wife. I find their marriage (she was recorded as BROGDEN) but can find nothing more on her, not even a death record, but she must have pre-deceased him as he does not mention her in his will."

The Brockden Family per Ernest Wiltshire

1. HUMPHREY1 BROCKDON (MERCHANT) was christened on 25 Jul 1641 in St. Petrox, Dartmouth, Devonshire, England. He was the son of Peter Brokadon & Thomasin Body, (married 9 Apr 1635, St. Petrox, Dartmouth, Devonshire). He and Elizabeth Ford married on 29 Mar 1666 in St. Michael, Barbados B.W.I. He died on 15 Jan 1673/74 in St. Michael, Barbados B.W.I., aged 32.

He left a will on 4 Feb 1670 in St. Michael, Barbados B.W.I.

Children of Humphrey1 Brockdon (merchant) and Elizabeth Ford all born in St. Michael, Barbados B.W.I, were as follows:

i. THOMASIN2 was christened on 23 Mar 1666/67. She and John Bates married on 30 Jan 1686 in St. Michael, Barbados B.W.I. She was also known as THOMASIN BROGDEN.

ii. JOHANNA was christened on 14 Aug 1668.

2. iii. ELIZABETH was christened on 30 Apr 1671. She and William Heysham Esq. (W.I. Merchant; M.P. for Lancaster) married on 4 Sep 1687. She died on 17 Jun 1703 aged 32.

Generation Two

2. ELIZABETH2 BROCKDON (Humphrey1) was christened on 30 Apr 1671 in St. Michael, Barbados B.W.I. She and William Heysham Esq. married on 4 Sep 1687. She died on 17 Jun 1703 in Barbados B.W.I. aged 32. She was also known as Elizabeth Brogdon.

Children of Elizabeth2 Brockdon and William Heysham Esq. (W.I. Merchant) M.P. all born in St. Michael, Barbados B.W.I, were as follows:

i. GILES3 was christened on 5 Sep 1689. ii. WILLIAM was born on 28 Jan 1693. He and Sarah Perry married in 1719. iii. ELIZABETH was christened on 25 Nov 1694.

William was mentioned in the Will of William Beresford, Gent, of St. Michaels Parish, 22 July 1701. "friends Hon. Benj: Cryer Esq and William Heysham Esq both of St Michaels Parish - Xtrs if my wf marries."

William was mentioned in the will of William Rogers, commander of the ship ALBERMARLE, 7 November 1694. "Mr. Isaac Woode to take charge of my ship and take it home to the owners; Mr. Gyles and William Heysham - Xtrs in trust." Proved 7 December 1694 - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800."

Listed as a "Forwarding Agent" for the post office in Barbados, British West Indies - from "The Postal History and Markings of The Forwarding Agents" by Kenneth Rowe. He was also referred to as a "factor" - from "Sugar and Slavery: An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623-1775."

"My part of the cargo was one hundred and ten pounds, and was consigned to William Heysam in Barbados, where she arrived, and returned in due time." - from "Seventeenth-Century Economic Documents" by Joan Thirsk and John Phillips Cooper
"After returning from Virginia with tobacco in May 1699, the ship Employment, of which [William] Stout was one-sixth owner, was fitted out for a voyage to Barbados. Stout's share of the cargo of "sundry dry goods" was 110 pounds. The cargo was consigned to William Heysham, a factor in Barbados. The first venture to Barbados was a disappointment. "I had returned in goods 132 pounds, freight and duty 30 pounds," he wrote, "so that I had in return only the value I sent; so that the profit remained there, in debts outstanding and goods unsold about 23 pounds, to be accounted for the next voyage thither."
After 1701 the Employment's goods were consigned to John Grove, "being not satisfied with William Heysham's management, who always sent short of return."

Forwarding Agent

This may be thought of as an import/export or customs agent, though not a government official. He was an agent who prepared the Bill of Lading for a shipowner or his agent. He arranged to transport goods from one country to another in his own name on behalf of a customer. The mark or imprint of these agents is a collectible by stamp collectors.

The complete list of forwarding agents for Barbados was:

Mich'l Cavan & Co.
James Cumming
Griffith & Jeffray
Wm. Heysham
Higginson & Co.
John Jeffray
Joseph Walcott
I think the company he kept indicates that William was a merchant.

Willliam's wife, Elizabeth, died in Barbados on 17 June 1703 and was buried at St. Michael's Church. Her tombstone:

"1703 June 27 Elizabth ye wife of Wm Heysham Esqr in Church" - from "Monumental Inscriptions: Tombstones of the Island of Barbados" by Vere Langford Oliver
Apparently she died on the 17th and was buried on the 27th.
"Heysham, William. Brother and partner of Robert Heysham. He resided chiefly in Barbados, and was Agent for the British Planters there during the greater part of Queen Anne's reign. His wife, Elizabeth, died at Barbados on June 27th, 1703, and was buried at St. Michael's Church, Barbados." - from "The Bolton Letters" by Andre Louis Simon.

In 1703 William was appointed one of the colony's agents to England and returned there the following year, 1704. The elected assembly had fought a long battle with the Royal governor for the right to choose the colonies' agents. In 1700 they had chosen William Bridges, Francis Eyles and Robert Heysham, William's elder brother. With few exceptions the colonial agents "were resident in or near London; and they were, moreover, men of some standing, wealthy West Indian merchants, absentee planters . . . or government officials, working in close touch with planters and merchants." - from "The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies" by Dame Lillian Margery Penson.

Before William left Barbados, however, he wrote his will. The will was signed in 1703 and remained in force until his death in 1716.

"In the Name of God Amen. I William Heysham of the Parish of St. Michael in the Island of Barbados Esqr. being of sound and disposing memory and suddenly intended off this Island to the Kingdom of England considering therefore the certainty of death and uncertainty of the time thereof for the settling of my temporal affairs doo make this my last Will and Testament in writing hereby revoking and disannulling [?] all former Wills or Testaments by me made.
And first my soul into the hands of God my Creator I doo hereby resign stedfastly hoping through the passion Death and Resurrection of Christ my Redeemer to inherit Salvation. My body to the Earth I commit decently to be interred at the discretion of my Executors hereafter named.
As as to what Estate it hath pleased Almighty God to bless me with I doo dispose of as followeth, viz.
I give unto my Sonn William Heysham my two setts of gold buttons for I [jacketts?] one gold hatband and my gold headed cane.
Item. I doo give and bequeth unto my said Son William Heysham the sume of Eight Thousand and ffive hundred pounds Sterling money of the Kingdom of England to be paid in England unto the said William Heysham when he shall have arrived to the age of one and twenty years. But in case of his Death before that age and unmarried Then I give and bequeth the said sum of Eight thousand five hundred pounds Sterling unto my daughter Elizabeth Heysham if she shall be then living.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my Daughter the said Elizabeth Heysham the Diamond necklace which my late wife did wear (the gold [clasp]) and all my Jewells which were worne or called the Jewells or Ornaments that belonged to or used by my said Wife or by my said Daughter.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my said Daughter Elizabeth Heysham the sume of Eight thousand pounds Sterling money of England to be paid in England at her arrival to the Age of seventeen years or day of Marriage which shall first happen. But if the said Elizabeth Heysham shall happen to depart this Life before she shall attain the age of seventeen years and without having been married, Then and in such case the Legacy of Eight thousand pounds Sterling bequethed to my said Daughter I doo give devise and bequeth unto my Son the said William Heysham.
Item. If it shall so happen that my said son William Heysham and my said Daughter Elizabeth Heysham shall both of them depart this Life before their respective Legacies become due and payable as above is appointed and without lawful Issue Then I give devise and bequeth the Legacies or portions herein before bequethed unto my said Sonn and Daughter unto my brother Robert Heysham Merchant of London, unto the child or children of my late Brother Gyles Heysham as shall be then living, unto the child or children that shall be of my Brother the said Robert Heysham, unto such child or children of Elizabeth Thornton as shall be then living, unto such child or children of my sisten Anne Carter as shall be then living, and to such child or children of Hester Barker as shall be then living, amongst them and every of them equally to be divided and distributed share and share alike.
Item. I give unto the two Daughters now living of my Brother the said Gyles Heysham each the sume of Two hundred pounds Sterling money in England and in case of the death of either of them Then the two hundred pounds of the Daughter that shall so dye I give and bequeth unto the Daughter that shall survive.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my loving Brother the said Robert Heysham and Jane his wife or the Survivour of them the sum of ffour hundred pounds Sterling money in England.
Item. I doo give and bequeth unto my most honoured Mother Elizabeth Heysham Widow one hundred Guineas to be paid immediately after my decease as an acknowledgment of my dutiful regards to her In case she shall be then living, But otherwise the above said Bequest to my said Mother to be void.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my Brother [blank] Barker and unto my Sister Hester Barker each of them the sume of ffifty pounds Sterling And in case my said Sister Barker shall have a child or children living at the time of my decease Then I give and bequeth to each such child the sum of ffifty pounds Sterling.
Item. I do give and bequeth unto my Brother Robert Carter and unto my Sister Anne Carter each the sume of ffive and twenty pounds Sterling And to his two children if living at my decease each the sume of one hundred and fifty pounds Sterling.
Item. I doo give and bequeth unto my Brother Edmund Thornton and Elizabeth his Wife each the sume of Twenty pounds Sterling and to each of their children as shall be living at the time of my decease each the sume of ffifty pounds Sterling.
Item. I doo order and appoint that the sume of ffifty pounds Sterling shall be paid in twelve Months after my decease by my Executors in England to the Church Wardens of the Town and Parish of Lancastre to be given and distributed amongst such of the Poor of that place as shall appear to be objects of Charity for their Support and Relief.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my Aunt Hellen [Thornton] Baugh twenty pounds Sterling for Mourning.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my loving Cozen Nicholas Baugh [Hellen's son] Merchant in London the sume of one hundred pounds Sterling money of this Island to be paid in one year after my decease.
Item. I give unto Robert Corbett the sume of one hundred pounds Current money of this Island to be paid one year after my decease.
Item. I do give and bequeth unto Mrs. Ann Warner the sume of Three hundred pounds Current money of this Island or Two hundred and fifty pounds Sterling money in England to be paid her in twelve months after my Decease.
Item. I give and bequeth unto Walter Scott Esqr. the sume of ffifty pounds current money of this Island.
I give and bequeth unto my Goddaughter Honor Scott who is the Daughter of the said Walter Scott the sume of twenty pounds current money of this Island.
I give and bequeth unto my Godson Nicholas Baker the sume of Twenty pounds current money of the Island.
Item. I doo give and bequeth unto my Goddaughter Jane Richards the summ of Twenty pounds current money of the Island.
Item. I do order and appoint that all my Lands Tenements Messauages houses Negroe Slaves and real Estate whatsoever in this Island be sold and disposed of by my Executors in this Island and they or the Survivour of them are hereby fully authorized to make seal and execute any authentique Deed or Deeds Conveyance or Conveyances in Law for the bargaining selling or conveying the same in ffee Simple or othewise according to such Estate Title of Interest as I have or shall have in such premises or any part thereof to any purchaser or purchasers and that the moneys or effects arising from the Sale thereof be remitted from hence to my Executors in England to be applied to the uses of this my Will.
Item. Whereas my Estate hath chiefly consisted in Merchandize so that the greatest part thereof are in moneys outstanding Debts shipping adventures to sea and other Chattells and personal Estate which cannot after my decease be soo well managed and carried on in the way of Trade and Merchandize as that the same may fully and [opportunely] answer the same intent and meaning of this my last Will and the purposes thereoff I doo hereby order direct and appoint that all and every the Interest property or [cargoes] that I shall have in any Ship or Vessell and all Adventures or Cargoes that are separately my own or in partnership with others soe with therof as shall appertain unto me at the time of my decease be with all convenient speed, sold and disposed of for the most and best advantage that can be made of the same.
And I doe further order and appoint that all outstanding Debts and other Effects whatsoever either in this Island or in any other parts of America be carefully gathered in collected and received by my Executors in this Island or the Survivour or Survivours of them. And when soe received or gathered in to be from time to time transmitted from these parts to the Kingdom of England in Merchandize or Effects or by such other ways and means as by my said Executors shall be thought fit and reasonable according to the discretion of them or the Survivour of them for the most benefit and advantage in augmenting and improving my Interest and Concerns. It being my true intent and meaning That my personal Estate should be drawn out of the American parts and lodged in England reserving nevertheless the [seont] to be paid the Legacies in money bequethed to the several Legatees now in this Island.
Item. All the rest and residue of my personal Estate that is not herein before otherwise devised or bequethed I doe give devise and bequeth unto my said Son William Heysham and unto my said Daughter Elizabeth Heysham and unto the child or children of my Sister Elizabeth Thornton and unto the child or children of my said Sister Anne Carter and unto the child or children of my sister Hester Barker or such of them as shall be living at the time of my death and to their respective heires and assignes forever equally to be divided. But for as much as in the transmitting or returning my Estate soe as aforesaid appointed to be lodged in England there may be hazards and casualties by Losses at Sea or other Accidents that cannot be foreseen or may not be avoided by means whereof my said Estate or Interest may happen to be diminished. It is the true intent and meaning of this my last Will And I doe hereby declare and fully and absolutely appoint that the [residuary] Devisees shall bear among themselves a just reasonable and proportionable part and share thereof according to the Losses and Casualties that shall or may so happen.
Item. Whereas that my aforesaid personal Estate soe used in Merchandize and other part thereof as and in outstanding Debts when drawn from the several parts abroad and lodged in England with such my Interest as already is in the Kingdom of England when added together will be very considerable. To the End therefore that the same may not bye unimproved but be augmented by the care and prudence of my Executors in England of the Survivour or Survivours of them for the use and benefit of the [residuary] Legatees and Devisees aforesaid and for the payment of my ffuneral Expenses just Debts and Legacies, I do hereby will and appoint that all such moneys as shall so be in England shall be put out to Interest in good and sufficient hands with good Security soe as that the Principal sums may thereby be improved as abovesaid And the Care Trust and management hereof is to be under the power and Authority of my said Executors in England or the Survivour or Survivours of them, but no part of my Estate or Interest in England shall be put into Merchandize or Trade to be sent into any fforeign parts but to remain in England to be there applyed to and for the use and purposes of this my Will until a division shall be made of the residue of my said Estate not herein before otherwise bequethed or disposed of.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my Aunt Anne Sweatlove [?] in the Kingdom of England the sume of fifty pounds sterling.
Item. In case it so happen that I depart this life in this Island, but not otherwise Then I doe will and appoint that the sume of one hundred pounds Sterling be given to the poor of the parish of St. Michaels and to be distributed by my Executors in this Island and by the Advise and approbation of the Reverend Benjamin Cryer That is to say amongst such [aucienfordecayed] housekeepers who are and shall appear to be objects of Charity and this to be done according to the discretion of my said Exceutors and the said Benjamin Cryer.
Item. I ordain and appoint my loving Brother Robert Heysham of the City of London Merchant and Rowland Tryon of the same place Merchant Executors in England of this my last Will and Testament and Guardians of the Bodies and Estates of my said Son and Daughter and that they have liberal Education and be decently maintained during their Minorities out of my Estate in general.
Whereas by Letters received from my Brother Robert Heysham in England I have intelligence that certain Lands Tenements and hereditamonts called or known by the name of Stagino in Hertfordshire are purchased for me which is so to answer and pay the purchase money there is or must be advanced and paid a considerable sume of money whereby my personal Estate may not be sufficient to pay and satisfy the money Legacies bequethed to my said Daughter and the Legacies to be paid in England to the other Legatees according to the respective sums and fines herein before limited. If therefore such purchase shall be made for me in my name or to my use and [behoof, behalf?] soe that my said Sonn William Heysham shall and doe inherit the same and reap the rents issues and profitts thereof then I hereby will and declare that if my personal Estate shall be deficient so as that the said Legacy of Eight thousand pounds Sterling money in England cannot be raised and paid out of my personal Estate for so much as the same shall fall short there of The said Lands Messuages Tenements and premises and every part thereof [uce?] and shall be chargeable with and liable to the payment of the same as also the other money Legacies appointed to be paid to the other Legatees in England.
Item. I doe nominate ordain and appoint that James Aynsworth Merchant and Coll. Richard Jownes of the Island of Barbadoes be Executors in the said Island of this my last Will and Testament if it shall soe happen that the said Walter Scott shall depart this Life before my decease.
Item. I do hereby declare that the Legacy of fifty pounds bequethed to him shall be absolutely void [that is, if he predeceased William].
In Testimonry whereof I have here unto set my hand and seal this seventh day of August in the year of our Lord God one thousand seven hundred and three and in the second year of her Majesties Reign.

William Heysham signed sealed and delivered and published in the presence of John Parkinson, Wm Harrison, Thos. Bulcocke, Wm. Keith, Wm. [Jitch], Thos. Wilbourn, [Quch] Sayers."
Benjamin Cryer, esq., was rector of St. Philip's church, in St. Michael's Parish, Barbados, where he had lived from at least 1678, when he married Isabella Robinson there. A member of the island's governing Council commencing in 1695. He was suspended from the Council in a dispute with the Governor Granville in 1704 - from "The History of Barbados" by Robert Hermann Schomburgk.
Rowland Tryon was a London merchant with interests in Barbados. He lived on Lime Street, though his grandfather, William had settled in Wethersfield, Connecticut. He was one of the agents for Barbados in London in 1708, serving with William Bridges and Sir John Stanley.
"The people of the Island have agents in England, to take care of their affairs, to whom they allow L250 a year." - from "The Life of Richard Steele: Ports" by George Atherton Aitken
Rowland was also the agent for South Carolina in 1720, the year he died. He may have acted for Maryland as well. He was the nephew of Thomas Tryon, who is mentioned above with Robert Heysham. He was a friend and advisor of Richard Steele, the publisher, along with Addison, of the "Tatler."
James Aynsworth was a merchant of Barbados. He was recommended to be a Councillor of Barbados circa 1711. Perhaps an Ainsworth of Smithill's Hall, Lancashire.
Coll. [Colonel] Richard Jownes, a Barbados merchant.

A Mr. William Heysham, merchant, married in Lancaster in 1703/4. The wife's name was not recorded. This may have been our William, just returned from Barbados, and a second marriage. That his first wife, Elizabeth Brockden, died in the fever-plagued West Indies would not be unlikely and the will, above, makes no mention of a wife still living. Note that all of William's children had been born by 1695. If William did marry again, he did not change his will.

The colony of Barbados had few effective means of forcing their agents to recognize their authority. Witholding payments was one.

"Thus, in Barbados, in 1704, the assembly resolved that one of their agents, William Heysham, had not "Justly and ffaithfully acquitted himself of the Trust . . . reposed in him," and it was ordered that he should "have no advantage of any sallary or profitts for the said Agency." So also in Antigua there appears to have been some disinclination to make payments to the unpopular agent Sir John St. Leger. But in both cases the attitude was abandoned. Five years after the termination of Heysham's agency a report was made recommending the payment to him of over L300 due to him as agent." - from "The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: a study in colonial administration, mainly in the..." by Lillian Margery Penson
I show William Heysham as colonial agent in 1709, with John Royley.
"Mr. William Heysham and Mr. Royle attending, communicated to the Board an Act past [sic] in Barbadoes the 16th of May, 1709, appointing them agent for the said island, which Act was read." - from "Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Plantations"
He was again from 1711 to 1714, and from 1715 to 1716, along with Joseph Micklethwaite and John Lloyd. - from "The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies" by Lillian Margery Penson.

William became a Member of Parliament for Lancaster from March 1705 until his death in 1716. He was noted to be one of a class of members "belonging to prominent business families in their native towns." He began his political career as a Tory but became increasingly disenchanted with the ministry. By the end of his career he was a Whig, like his brother, and in the opposition. What land he owned was in Barbados.

Robert and William were mentioned in the Will of Edward Denny of St. Peters Parish, Barbodos, 24 July 1710. ". . . money in the hands of William Hoysham and Robert Hoysham in London merchants . . . " - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800."

William was listed as one of the principal directors of the British South Seas Company in 1713 - from "Jews and the American Slave Trade." The company conducted much of the trade to South America and the Caribbean out of London. The Perry family of London was also involved in the company in a major way. William's son, William Jr., married Sarah Perry in 1719. Note that Isaac Fernandez Nunez, whose daughter married into the Thornton-Heysham family, was incidentally mentioned.

The South Seas Bubble

The name given to the first great stock market crash in England in 1720. It is a fascinating story of mass hysteria, political corruption, and public upheaval.

The beginning can be traced to 1711 when the South Seas Company was given a monopoly of all trade to the south seas. The real prize here was the anticipated trade that would open up with the rich Spanish colonies in South America upon the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession--a war that began in 1703 and would end in 1713 with a treaty that did favour England but not nearly to the extent that was hoped. In return for this monopoly, the South Seas Company would assume a portion of the national debt that England had incurred during the war.

The South Seas Company was really a financial institution that used its monopoly primarily as a means of attracting investors. When Britain and Spain officially went to war again in 1718, the immediate prospects for any benefits from trade to South America were nil. But what mattered to speculators were future prospects, and here it could always be argued that incredible prosperity lay ahead and would be realized when open hostilities came to an end. In 1720 the Company began to drive the price of shares up through artificial means; these largely take the form of new subscriptions combined with the circulation of pro-trade-with-Spain stories designed to give the impression that the stock could only go higher. These efforts were highly effective. The stock had an incredible six-month run, rising from 175 pounds per share in February to just over a 1000 pounds in June. Then, based on rumors that the directors were selling, it burst and by September prices were below 135 pounds. Investors screamed foul against the South Seas directors. Parliament was recalled and George I hastened back to London. Mobs crowded into Westminster. A committee was form to investigate the South Seas Company and by early 1721 it uncovered widespread corruption and fraud among the directors, company officials and their friends at Westminister.

Five of the company's directors, William Chapman, Robert Chester, Edward Gibbon, Francis Hawes and Richard Houlditch were ordered imprisoned. Many of them had their estates confiscated. Two others, William Astell and Harcourt Master, gave evidence against several government ministers.

"The first earnest complaint from British planters against the Northern Colonies' trade with the Dutch came in 1713, and was forwarded to the Board of Trade by their agent, William Heysham. It was no longer upon military grounds that they objected to the trade, but because a commercial rival had encroached upon a British industry. "I am directed from Barbados," wrote Heysham, "to lay before Your Lordships, That of Late, Rum, Sugar, and Molasses hath been Imported to New England and other Northern Collonies from Surranam, which if not timely prevented may prove fatall to her Ma'sts Sugar Plantations in America and greatly discourage the Trade and Navigation of Great Brittain-Suranam being a large Collony and the Land New and fertile they can make and Vend Sugers much cheaper then any of her Maj'sts Plantations-This humbly Craves Yr Lors'ps consideration. And your best and speediest assistance to prevent the Growing Evill." - from "The Development of the British West Indies, 1700-1763" by Frank Wesley.

The following relates a visit to the Heysham's in Lancaster.

"August 31. [1713]--Pd to John Bracon 2s. ffor my black mare's trespass; then went with Majr. Recordr and Alderman, to meet Mr. Will Hey--m and his son [in Lancaster] . . ."
"September primo.--Alday in the toun; after dinr younge Mr. Hey--m calld with other and drank a bottle of wine. In the evening went to Mr. Will Hey--m, and stayd with him, the majr and others, till ten; soe to beed."
"September 2.-- . . . then went to dine with Mr. Hey--m's, who treated us well, and a boull off punch affter dinr . . ."
Footnote: "William Heysham wsa born at Lancaster, and, with his brother, Robert, became an eminent merchant in London. He represented Lancaster from 1705 until his death in 1727 [sic]. Robert served the same borough from 1701 to 1714 . . . "
- from "The Tyldesley Diary: Personal Records of Thomas Tyldesley" by Thomas Tyldesley and Joseph Gillow
Note that the footnote conflates William Heysham Sr. and Jr.'s terms of service in the Parliament.

The following refers to a note William sent to the Board of Trade on 6 October 1713 in support of the Barbados colony.

"The first earnest complaint from British planters against the Northern Colonies' trade with the Dutch came in 1713, and was forwarded to the Board of Trade by their agent, William Heysham. It was no longer upon military grounds that they objected to the trade, but because a commercial rival had encroached upon a British industry. "I am directed from Barbadoes," wrote Heysham, "to lay before Your Lordships, That of Late, Rum, Sugar, and Molasses hath been Imported to New England and other Northern Collonies from Surranam, which if not timely prevented may prove fatall to her Ma[jesties]sts Sugar Plantations in America and greatly discourage the Trade and Navigation of Great Brittain -Suranam being a large Collony and the Land New and fertile they can make and Vend Sugers much cheaper then any of her Maj[jesties]sts Plantations -- This humbly Craves Y r Lors ps consideration. And your best and speediest assistance to prevent the Growing Evill."

"The Board of Trade summoned Jeremiah Dummer, the agent for Massachusetts and Connecticut, and Heysham, and talked over the matter for three days in January and February, 1714 (January 28, 29, and February 2)." - from "The Development of the British West Indies, 1700-1763" by Frank Wesley Pitman, 1967.
The sugar planters did not get relief until the passage of the notorious Molasses Act of 1733, which helped start the American colonies on their path to rebellion.

". . . Late in November 1715 interloper William Heysham and his associates, undertakers of a Voyage To Madagascar for Slaves', sought East India Company . . ." - from "The East India Company and the Provinces in the Eighteenth Century" by James H. Thomas. Note that William's brother, Robert, was also called an interloper, above. Did this word have some significance that I'm missing?

In 1717 [sic] William gave three great brass candelabra, left, to the Lancaster Priory & Parish Church of St. Mary’s. The candelabra are still in existence.

William Heysham, merchant of London and M.P. for Lancaster, died, at Bath, on 14 June 1716 per Musgraves Obituaries and was buried in Lancaster on 10 July 1716. His will named him 'William Heysham of Saint Michael Island of Barbados, West Indies.' Note that by his death he avoided the opprobrium of the South Seas Company crash in 1721.

William had three sons and on daughter, of whom we know,
(20) Giles Heysham (1689)
(20) William Heysham (1691)
another daugther, name unknown,
(20) Elizabeth Heysham (1694)

(20) Giles Heysham (1689)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635) (19) William Heesham (1667)

He was born on 17 August 1689 and christened on 5 September in Saint Michael, Barbados, Caribbean, "Giles ye son of Mr. Wm: & Eliz: Heysham, b. ye 17th Aug last" - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800." William, below, was clearly listed as the second son of (19) William in the armorial listings. Giles died on 26 October 1692 and was buried on the island of Barbados.

The Church of Saint Michael

This church is situated in the City of Bridgetown, the capital of Barbados. The church was destroyed by a hurricane in 1780.


(20) William Heysham (1691)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635) (19) William Heesham (1667)

He was born on 10 December 1691 per "Notes and Queries," but not christened until 28 January 1693 in Saint Michael, Barbados, Caribbean, "Wm: ye son of Wm: & Elizabeth Heysham, about 2 yrs. old" - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800."

On 1 July 1700 William and his sister, Elizabeth, were mentioned in the Will of John Bates, merchant of St. Michael's Town, Barbados.

". . . To be buried in parish church next to mo [sic] Lettice Bates if I die in Bdos [Barbados]; uncle George Cotterell's chn; cousins William Heysham & Elizabeth Heysham, son & dau of bro in law William Heysham Esq & Elizabeth his wf; Jennette Brewster & Elizabeth Brewster, daus of Thomas Brewster Esq; Capt. Edwin Clarke; Ursuller Fort, wf of . . . " - from "Barbados Records: Wills and Administrations" by Joanne Mcree Sanders, Barbados Dept. of Archives.
Since William's elder brother, Giles, was not mentioned I assume he had died by this time.

William was brought home to England around 1700. William Heysham's second son, but first surviving. He was admitted to Christ College, Oxford in May 1709.

"Heysham, William, s. G. ("Gul."), of Barbados, arm. Christ Church, matric. 4 May, 1709, aged 17; student of Middle Temple 1709 (his father of Greenwich, Kent, merchant), one of the six clerks of chancery 1714-1719." - from "Alumni Oxonienis"
He was admitted to the Middle Temple on 1 April 1709 - from "Register of Admissions to the Honorable Society of the Middle Temple." William Heysham was listed as a member of the Honorable Society of the Middle Temple of as of 1 April 1709. - from "The Honorable Society of the Middle Temple" by Sir Henry. I don't understand this - would William have been at both schools at the same time?

According to a letter by the head of Christ College, Oxford, William had to be sent home in 1711 due to his involvement with a girl. He was 20 years old.

"1711, October 12.-- . . . Poor Heysham must be taken away, he is now with his father, but we have discovered an intrigue with a girl for marriage. His friends have notice of it, so I suppose we shall not see him again, but this to yourself." - from Letters of Dr. William Stratford of Christ Church, Oxford, to Edward, afterwards Lord, Harley" in "The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Portland, Vol. VII" in "Sessional Papers" of the House of Commons.
Dr. William Stratford was canon of Christ Church college, Oxford; he had been chaplain to Robert Harley and tutor his son, Edward. Edward Harley was to become the 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer.

William Heysham, Esq. was appointed as one of the Six Clerks of Chancery on 20 May 1714 and held that position until 1719. The Chancery would have been a lucrative sinecure and it is somewhat surprising that William would have been one of the Six Clerks at such a young age.

The Court of Chancery

The Chancery, named for its head, the Lord Chancellor, was a court of equity and dealt with property disputes and property management, including the adjudication of wills and trusts. Its jurisdiction, and power of subpoena, allowed it to determine matters that found no remedy in common law. The principal officers of the Court of Chancery at the beginning of the 18th century were the Chancellor and the Master of the Rolls, who were the court's judges, the Masters in Chancery, who were responsible for investigating the cases, the Six Clerks of Chancery, or Prothonotaries, and their under-clerks, known as the Sixty Clerks or, later, as Sworn Clerks.

The business of the six-clerk office was to maintain Chancery records, receiving and filing all bills, answers and replications, and entering memoranda of them in their books, as well as signing all copies of pleadings of their under-clerks. The under-clerks were known as sixty-clerks because a law required that no Six Clerk have more than 10 under-clerks working for him. In the early history of the Court the Six Clerks and the sixty-clerks acted as the attorneys for the suitors. As business increased, the under-clerks became a distinct body and were recognized by the court under the denomination of ‘sworn clerks,’ or ‘clerks in court.’

By the 18th century the Chancery Court Clerks and their Masters were noted for their corruption and abuses. This was in great part due to its overload of cases, but since suitors in Chancery had to pay fees at every step in the procedure, which were for the most part appropriated by the officers themselves, this led to the suspicion that proceedings were extended to gain more fees. See Dickens' "Bleak House" for a 19th vision of the ruinously expensive and slow Chancery court. The six-clerk office was abolished during the reign of Victoria.

The Six Clerks operated from a building, called Harflete Inn, on the west side of Chancery Lane, near the Holbern end. Chancery Lane runs along the east side of Lincoln’s Inn, one of the four Inns of Court, and continues down to Fleet Street and the Temple.

William was apparently in the north in 1715 when rebellion swept the region and troops loyal to the Old Pretender moved on the city of Lancaster. There is a notation,

"Heysham, William.--Ensign June 12, 1715. Served at Siege of Preston 1715." - from "Roll of Officers of the Old County Regiment of Lancashire Militia Late 1st Royal Lancashire" by J Lawson Whalley.

"Roll of Officers
Of the County Regiment of Lancashire Militia,
Under Command of Colonel Sir Henry Hoghton, Bart.
Present at the storming of the Barricades, and the re-capture from the
Scottish and other Rebels of the Town of Preston, Nov. 15th, 1715, with the
losses of the Regiment on that occasion.
. . .
Capt. Clayton's Company
Capt.--Thos. Clayton.
Lieut.--Jno Chisnal. . . Wounded at Wind Mill Barricade
Ensign--W. Heysham. . . "
The company included 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, 2 Drummers, and 56 Privates. An Ensign, a junior infantry officer, would be a gentleman so this was not someone from the Edward Heesham line of butchers, flaxmen and carpenters that lived in the city.

The London merchant family of Robert and William Heysham did maintain close links with their old home town. Note that a ship of Robert's was in the Lune river channel at the time and its cannon were seized by the rebels and used at the battle of Preston. Note too the use of the Heysham spelling, something only the Giles Heysham side of the family did. A possible alternative is from the John Heysham line, that is the William Heysham who married Dorothy Postelthwaite and fathered the American line of the family. He was, however, twenty years older and a father. I suspect it more likely that a 21-year old single man jumped at the chance to lead troops in battle than did a 40-year old.

The Jacobite Rebellion and The Siege of Preston

The Catholic King James, of the Scottish Stuart family, had been deposed in 1688 and everafter he, his son, the Old Pretender, and grandson, the Young Pretender, Bonnie Prince Charlie, strove to return to England. The risings of their supporters in England and Scotland were known as the Jacobite rebellions and ended only when Bonnie Prince Charles was soundly defeated at the battle of Culluden in 1746.

In 1714 the throne had passed to George I and the Hannover family which inspired the rebellion of 1715. This was mainly a Scottish revolt, the English Jacobites having been earlier cowed by a series of targeted arrests. The Scottish Jacobites captured Perth in September 1715. Expecting to find support in Lancashire, a Catholic stronghold, they marched towards Liverpool. They were unopposed in Lancaster and recruited 1,500 men in Preston in November. By this time the government had raised an army under General Wills and beseiged the Jacobites at Preston.

The battle of Preston lasted from 9 to 14 November 1715. After several days of house to house fighting, and the arrival of English reinforcements, the rebel leaders requested terms. Wills refused to negotiate and on the 14th the rebels unconditionally surrendered. About 1500 prisoners were taken, many of them to be transported for their treason.

The defeat at Preston ended the rebellion in England. The Old Pretender meanwhile had set up court at Scone, in Perthshire. By February 1716 however the rebellion had petered out and James Stuart returned to France.


The Attack on the Lancaster Lane, or the Wind Mill Barricade

The rebels set-up four barriers to the English assault, the third being the Windmill barrier, named for a nearby inn, on the road leading to Lancaster. "Brigadier Dormer conducted the attack. The regiments of Winn and Dormer, and a squadron of Stanhope's, were ordered to dismount under the command of Brigadier Dormer . . . The Windmill Barricade was defended by the Mackintoshes, under the command of Brigadier Mackintosh's kinsman, Colonel Mackintosh. This Chieftan and his clan behaved very bravely, and from garden walls, hedges, and ditches, made a dreadful fire among the King's forces, obliging them to retreat. Brigadier Dormer then ordered Captain Gardener, Sergeant Johnstone, and Corporal John Marlow, with other twelve of Stanhope's dragoons, to set the houses on fire, which the did with all expedition, buring them up to the barricade . . . that the Government Forces suffered deeply in this affair. By Clarke the number killed is rated at about one hundred and forty, but an opposite account reduces the number actually slain to nine only, and the wounded to about forty. " - from "Lancashire Memorials of the Rebellion" by Samuel Hibbert. "An attack made on the Wind mill barricade, which was defended by Colonel Mackintosh, was equally unsuccessful. Thus repulsed in all their attacks, ..." - from "History of the Scottish Highlands" by John Scott Keltie, Thomas Maclauchlan, John Wilson

William succeeded his father in 1716 as Lancaster MP and inherited, with his sister, an estate estimated to be been worth 17,000 pounds. His sister died in 1721, leaving him the entire estate. He lived in London.

"William Heysham junior, elected for Lancaster in July 1716, succeeded to the seat formerly held by his deceased father of the same name, the Barbados merchant noted above." - from "British 'Non-Elite' MPS, 1715-1820 by Ian R. Christie.
William was only 25 years old when he entered Parliament. Note also from British History Online, the First Parliament of George I (1715-22), List of knights, commissioners, citizens & burgesses in Parliament:
"Lancashire
Lancaster
Doddington Braddyl, Esq;
William Heysham, Esq; deceased. In his Place chose
William Heysham, Esq; one of the Six Clerks in Chancery."
William's uncle, Robert, was also on this list as "Robert Heysham, Esq; Alderman."

William inherited his father's business and carried on the family tradition as a West Indies merchant, in partnership with his uncle, Robert. He entered Parliament, taking his father's seat.

William Heysham Esq. married Diana Hooker on 26 February 1711 in Saint Luke, Old Charlton, Greenwich, Kent, England.

"1711-2
William Heysham Esquire of the Parish of East-Greenwich in Kent and Mrs Diana Hooker were married Febry 26th with License from the Lord Bishop of Rochester" - from the "Charlton Parish Register>
The following describes the inheritance [or sale] of The Grange, a home of the Hooker family, to William Heysham, and subsequently to his cousins, Robert Heysham and Robert Thornton.

"In his will Hooker had left the associated Greenwich properties to his eponymous son, who in 1713 sold them to William Heysham, MP, evidently a connection, as his wife Diana had formerly been a Mrs. Hooker. The Grange then descended to William Heysham's first cousin, Robert Heysham [his brother Robert's son], and from him to a mutual cousin, Robert Thornton the elder, late of London, brewer," in 1735. In the later 1760s, during the tenure of his son, John Bigge Thornton, the plot for May's Buildings was leased out and The Grange itself was updated. At the time of Robert Thornton the elders inheritance he had retired from London and was already living with his cousin Robert Heysham at the Thornton-cum-Heysham . . . " p. 262

"[footnote] 10 ". . . Indeed Heysham's will, made in 1727, makes it clear that the maiden name of his then wife Sarah (whom he married in 1719) was Perry [Slight, doc.2; the date of marriage is givin in Sedgwick, loc.cit.]. But he was first married to a Mrs. Diana Hooker, at St. Luke's, Old Charlton, Kent, on 26 February 1712, by special license from the Bishop of Rochester [ex.inf. Neil Rhind, extracted from GHC, Old Charlton parish registers]. So at the time of purchase he was buying from the family of his earlier wife's first husband."
. . .
[footnote] 12 "Attested copy of Robert the son's will' of 1734. Robert Heysham was still alive on 3 July 1735, the date in an attested copy of a 'Recovery with double voc'"
. . .
[footnote] 14 Robert Thornton the elder's retirement from London to Stagenhoe occurred between 13 May 1734 when he is described as 'of London' and 6 July of the same year when he is described in Robert Heysham's will as 'late of London but now residing with me."
[footnote] 15 Robert Thornton is thus found to have inherited Stagenhoe from the Heyshams, but they in turn had inherited it by marrying the heiress daughters of an earlier Edmund Thornton [sic]. The two families repeatedly intermarried, both having originated from the environs of Lancaster . . . lists Stagenhoe, in the parish of St Paul's Walden, as rebuilt after a fire of 1737." p. 281 - from "The Georgian Group Journal" volume 14.

The Grange, in Croom's Hill, Greenwich, was acquired from Sir Lancelot Lake by Sir William Hooker (1612-1697) in 1662. He was a member of the Grocer's Company, Sheriff during the Great Plague of 1665 and fire of 1666, and Mayor of London in 1674. Pepys said of him, "a plain ordinary silly man I think he is, but rich." Sir William had a son, William Hooker esquire, who married Elizabeth, the daugher of John Turner, Sergeant of Law, was probably Diana's father.

Diana Hooker apparently died and William Heysham, of Greenwich, Kent, then second married Sarah Perry, of St. Catherine Cree Church, on 1 October 1719 in the Gray's Inn Chapel. Sarah was only 17. Sarah’s parents were Richard Perry [Pery], a London merchant, and Sarah Richards. This was a marriage between two powerful merchant families. Sarah was born in 1702 and died in 1763. The couple had no children. It was about this time that William left his position at the Chancery.

Sarah’s brother Micajah Pery was Lord Mayor of London in 1738/39. He was known as the dean of American lobbyists for his continual efforts to secure more government support for American traders. He died a bankrupt, in part, because he spent so much time in mercantile politics.

The Pery (Perry) Family of London

The primary source of information for this family is "Perry of London, A Family and a Firm on the Seabourne Frontier, 1615-1753," by Jacob M. Price, 1992. The preface begins:

"At the beginning of the seventeenth century, participation in many a branch of English foreign trade was either monopolized by a favored joint stock company or restricted to members of a particular chartered society (for example, the Merchant Adventurers, the Eastland Company, the Levant Company). Very often these chartered companies restricted their membership to Londoners and to "mere merchants," excluding retailers, manufacturers and ship captains. By contrast, participation in the newly developing trades to North America and the West Indies -- particularly after the termination of the Virginia Company in 1624 -- was open to all subjects of the Crown. With the gates ajar, a numerous and motley band of small ventuirers -- including retailers and ship captains -- pushed into these new and promising American trades."
I think this paragraph encapsulates the rise of the Heysham family, both of Lancaster and of London, as well as it does the Pery's.

The Pery's trading house was Perry & Lane. They were merchants of London and the leading importers of tobacco from Virginia. The head of the family was Micaiah Perry (1641-1721). The Pery's probably came from Exeter, where they became merchants in the 16th century. Micaiah began his career as an apprentice when he was admitted in the London Haberdashers Company in 1656, but by 1666 was in trade with Virginia in partnership with Thomas Lane. The firm grew rapidly. In the next ten years they became 12th largest in trade. In another ten they were 2nd. In another ten they were the largest importers in England and the family firm stayed in this position for another thirty years.

Micaiah married Ann Owens. Their only surving son was Richard. He married Sarah Richards, the daughter and sole heir of another major tobacco importer, George Richards. Richard used part of this wealth to buy into the Bank of England and he soon became a director of that firm.

Richard and Sarah had two sons and three daughters. "He had already provided for his eldest daughter Sarah (1702-1763) on her marriage in 1719 to William Heysham (1691-1727), M.P. for Lancaster, son of William Heysham (1666-1716), M.P. for Lancaster and London. Of an old Lancaster family, the senior William Heysham and his older brother Robert had become major West India merchants of London. To his next daughter, Mary, Richard Perry IV left £3000 in Bank of England stock, and to his youngest daughter, Elizabeth, £1000 in South Sea stock (which would have been worth many times as much in the first half of 1720). His half interest in the partnership with his father went one-third to his older son, Micajah III, one-third to his younger son, Phillip, and one-third to his wife, Sarah."

Richard's son, Micaiah Jr., aged 26, became head of the firm upon his grandfather's death in 1721, Richard having predeceased. It "was indisputably the leading tobacco importing firm in London and all Britain-and probably in the world." However, Micaiah Jr. was not the man his grandfather was and trade began to suffer. His role in politics also became less circumspect and he earned powerful enemies through his Whig policies.


Timeline: The Reign of Kings, The House of Hannover
1714-1727 George I

George was the Elector of Hanover and the first of the Hanoverian line of British rulers. He spoke only German. His mother, Sophia, was the granddaughter of King James I of England.

1715 - First Jacobite rebellion. From Jacobus, the Latin name for James, the deposed King James II of England. The Jacobites wanted James II's son, James Francis Edward Stuart, known as the "Old Pretender," to be King. He was a Roman Catholic.

What effect did the South Seas Company crash in 1720 have on William? Had he inherited a directorship or simply his father's shares? Either way, it was a financial disaster.

The journal of William Stout, a Quaker, noted the political struggles of the early Hanoverian Kings.

1722. "Upon the 26th of this mo. Sr Thos Lowther of Houlker and William Heysam of London was [were] elected Members of Parliament for Lancaster without opposition . . . But the new Parliament not proving to the liking of the disaffected, they entered into a new conspiracy, to be executed when the King was gone to Hanover," etc. [Commonly called Atterbury's Plot.] - from "Notitia Cestriensis: Or Historical Notices of the Diocese of Chester By Francis Gastrell
William was not involved in this plot.

We have a silver salver, by Sameul Wastell of London,

"1721, Britannia standard with simple raised lobed rim, on three shaped bracked feet, the center engraved with contemporary arms in a baroque cartouche, the back engraved with a circular inscription, marked on salver and on each foot, 23 ozs. diameter 10 1/8 in. (25.7 cm.) The arms are those of Fenton. The inscription reads, "The Gift of Wm: Heysham, Esq. to his Godson, James Fenton 1722." Provenance: Garrard & Co., London, August 2, 1963."
James Fenton was probably a son of the Reverend James Fenton Jr., son of the Vicar of Lancaster and later Vicar in his own turn. Note that William Heysham Sr. had died just one month after Reverend Fenton's first son died in 1716. Perhaps this brought the two men together, mourning as they were a son and a father.

James Fenton, Godson

There were a long line of James Fenton's in Lancaster. One Fenton family owned cotton mills and lived at Bamford Hall. The others were clerics.

(18) James Fenton (1654)

Vicar of Lancaster. 1684, Presented by George Toulson. He matriculated at Oxford from Queen's Colege, 23 May 1672, aged 18, son of John Genton of Garthes, Westmorland. He died in February 1713/4.

(19) James Fenton Jr. (1688)
James Fenton (1654)

Vicar of Lancaster. 1714, Presented by Robert Gibson of Lancaster, esq., the current patron. James matriculated at Oxford March 13, 1704-5, son of James Fenton of Lancaster, Clerk, aged 17. Rector of Heysham from 1738-1756 and held the living at Lancaster for over 40 years. He died in January 1767. One of the Justices of the Peace for Lancashire.

(20) James Fenton III (1716)

He was born, the second son of that name, on 22 August 1716. He was a lawyer of the Middle Temple, educated at Eton and Queen's College, Oxford. He was the Recorder of Lancaster from 1758 to 1791, when he was succeeded by his son, John Fenton.

(21) John Fenton (c1746)

John assumed his mother's maiden name, Cawthorne, by royal licence as part of an inheritance. He was Recorder of Lancaster from 1791 to 1796 and an M.P. for Lancaster for 17 years between 1806 and 1831.

In 1723 William Heysham, Esq., of East Greenwich, Kent, M.P. for Lancaster was granted a Coat of Arms. He was listed as the second son of William Heysham and grandson of Giles Heysham, of Lancaster. The coat of arms applied to all descendents of Gyles Heysham.

The Granting of Arms

Arms and crests are granted by letters patent. The first step in applying for a grant of arms is to submit a petition, or memorial as it is called, to the Earl Marshal.

If the Earl Marshal approves a petition he will issue his Warrant to the Kings of Arms allowing them to proceed with the grant. At this stage the designing of the arms will begin. The Kings of Arms have full discretion over the design of the armorial bearings they grant, but the wishes of the applicant are taken into account as fully as possible. The officer of arms who is acting for the petitioner will discuss with him or her the allusions and references he or she would like made in the design. Simplicity and boldness make for the best heraldic design and it is a mistake to seek the inclusion of too many references. The officer will, through his experience and knowledge of many thousands of coats of arms, be able to warn the petitioner of what is heraldically trite. The design must be proper heraldry and be distinct from all previous arms on record at the College. References in the design could be made to the grantees profession, family, interests or place of residence or origin. Visual quotations may be made from the arms of institutions with which he or she is particularly associated. There is a long tradition of puns in heraldry, some of them obvious, others less so.

The form of the arms, once they are granted, will be governed not by the painting of the arms on the letters patent, but by the concise verbal description of them in the text, known as the blazon. The same arms may be rendered perfectly correctly in an infinite number of artistic styles.

When married, a woman may unite her arms with those of her husband in what are called marital arms; their arms are impaled, meaning placed side by side in the same shield, with those of the man on the dexter and those of his wife on the sinister.

The Heysham coat of arms: Gules (a red shield), an anchor in pale (in the middle, upgright) or (colored gold), on a chief (top third of the shield) of the second (the second color just mentined, that is gold) three torteaux (red balls, sometimes called roundles). Balls, while sometimes shown on coats or arms, have no particular significance - that is, I don’t think Mr. Heysham was a pawnbroker. The charge, in this case an anchor, often represents articles connected with the occupation of the individual, however the anchor also has the heraldic meaning of "succor in extremity” and as “the Christian symbol of hope."

The helmet, shown on the arms at the tope of this page, but not in the heraldic records, represents the rank of the bearer. In profile, pointing left (dexter) with the visor down, as here, it represents a gentleman. If full faced with the visor open it would represent a knight. If the visor were barred, it would indicate royalty. The base of the crest is surrounded by a wreath, a circlet of twisted ribbon tinctured in the principal metal and color of the shield. The crest is a mount (a mound or hill ) ppr. (proper, that is in its natural color), thereon a buck in full course (running, also referred to as courant) ar. (argent, or silver in color) guttee de sang (spotted with blood), attired (with antlers) and unguled or (hoofs of a different color, gold), and wounded through the neck with an arrow gu. (guled, meaning of the same color) feathered and headed gold. In another source the crest is listed as a stag’s head cabossed (full faced) ensigned (ornamented) with a ducal coronet. The complete design ensemble is called an achievement of arms.

Coats of Arms were not just for the nobility. In the late middle ages prosperous businessmen and merchants, even peasants with the wherewithal, could obtain them, for a fee. Their design would be of some personal significance to the original owner. It may be that the Heysham's of Lancaster, merchants and shipowners, noted their nautical side with the anchor.

I think, however, I have now unraveled the complete meaning of these arms. They act to reinforce the family’s claim to a connection with the Gernet family, noted in the Biography of Dr. John Heysham of Carlisle. The crest of a wounded stag is a reference to the Gernet families’ role as Foresters of Lancashire. The use of the anchor is more devious. The Gernet charge was a rampant lion, but because they share this with the Mowbray’s, a family still living, the College of Herald’s would not have allowed William to appropirate this device unless he could prove the family relationship, which he could not.

However, in the 1700’s there was a German family of merchants operating in the Baltic named Gernet, an offshoot of the old Norman family; the name being current in France, Germany, and Russia as it is today. England had a thriving trade with the Baltic countries in those days, especially for naval stores, so William would have been familiar with this Gernet family. They had their own coat of arms that featured an anchor as the charge. The Herald’s of England would not have objected when William used this foreign device, yet he could still, surreptitiously, make his claim to the Gernet connection. Such plays on names or words are common in heraldry.

The Baltic Trading Family of Gernet

The present day Embassy for the Republic of Lithuania to Estonia is located in the capital city of Tallinin, in a baroque style house that dates to the late 17th century. Above the portal are three escutcheons bearing coats of arms. These belong to the merchant-aldermen of Tallinin who adapted the original building for the sorting of flax and hemp. The anchor is the emblem of the Gernet merchant family, Wilhelm Hinrich Gernet having played a major role in the creation of the sorting house.


The Baltic Gernet's

I received the following information, and the photograph, from Erik Gernet of St. Petersburg, Russia. He is a descendant of the Baltic Gernet family.

The embassy noted above is located on 15 Uus street and was built by the Gernet's and their partners in trade, the families of Oom [Ohm] and Husen. The arms over the door are for the family of Oom - a heart; Gernet - an anchor; Husen - a lion. Two Gernet sons married with two Husen daughters.


The letters on the center set of arms should be "W H G", but time and a lot of painting and repainting transformed the "H" into an "N." The restoration preserved the misspelling.

Wilhelm's brother, Carl Gottlieb Gernet, applied "for nobility of [the] Holy Roman Empire." The rescript [a formal degree or edict], signed by Kaiser Franz I [1745-1765], added the noble "von" to his name. Note that this elevation applied only to Carl and his heirs, not to Wilhelm's line of the family. The text of the rescript confirmed that,

"Die uhralte Edele Garnet Familie abstammet aus Engelland"
[The most-ancient noble Garnet family derived from England]
So clearly this Austro-German family thought they were English. Also,
"Die Voreltern abkommlinge der uhralten Edlen Englandischen Familie Garnet gewesen, die sich von Zeit zu Zeit in den Niederlandischen Kriegen so beruhmt gemacht, und sehr honorable Militar-Chargen bekleidet."
[The descendants of this most-ancient noble English family of Garnet were, between times, so famously engaged in the wars in the Netherlands that they clothed themselves in military honors]
The Netherlands Wars were probably those of the Elizabethan period when the Dutch fought the Spaniards for their independence, from 1579 to 1648. See also Gernets of Europe for more information about this family.

As to the three torteaux, or balls, I have found a reference to a Gerneth, a common spelling of the Gernet name, who used "Gules, three escallops, or," and in another place as "argent," as his arms. That is, a red shield with three shells, either gold or silver in color. - from "An Alphabetical Dictionary of Coats of Arms Belonging to Families in Great Britain and Ireland" by John W. Papworth and Alfred W. Morant. These were the arms of Sir Randolph Dacre, below, whose son married Joan Gernet. He was referred to in this book as "Sr. Randolph Daker ab origine [from the beginning/origin] GERNET, V." Could the three torteaux be a simulcum of escallops? I suppose that's too big a reach.

More likely the three torteaux were a reference to William's great-grandmother, who may have been Jane Baley [Bayley, Baillie]. This is by no means certain, but "Jane Baley fil [daughter]: vx [vx, ux, uxor = wife of] Geyles Heesham of Lancr [buried] by her first husband 03 Nov 1659" - from "Burials, Lancaster Parish Register." Remember, the Heysham arms were given to all descendents of Geyles Heesham & his wife, that is, Jane Baley [maybe], so it makes a lot of sense that the arms would reference both sides of the family. The Bayley family arms, below, were argent, three torteaux, two above one, a chief gules. The Bayley family appears to have originated in the Ribble river valley.

So, take the Bayley arms and put them in the Gernet colors of gules and or. Move the three torteux, for Bayley, into the chief. Then, take the anchor from the arms of the European family of Gernet, and place it on the shielf in the Gernet colors. Voila!. Of course if the Gernet color scheme hd been maintained the anchor would have been argent.

Another possible explanation is found in the "Thornton Achievement," the arms of William Thornton of East Newton, erected by his wife, Alice, in Stonegrave Church circa 1668. William Thornton was the son of Robert Thornton and Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Darley of Audby. His wife was Alice Wandesford, the daughter of Christopher Wandesford of Kirklington and Alice, daughter of Sir Hewitt Osbourn of Kiverton. The reason this family is important is that William Heysham's brother, Robert, was married to two Thorntons (one of whom used arms very similar to that of the Thorntons of East Newton), and his mother was also a Thornton, though of Oxcliffe. The achievement included 12 arms, half for the family of Thornton and half for Wandesford. In the upper right corner is a shield, "or a fess gules and in chief three torteaux," on the Wandesford half. Could William's arms have been alluding to these? The achievement was early enough that William Heysham could be aware of it.

The Butterly [Butterleie, Beterley], Colville, and De Dale families used the arms referenced above, but those names mean nothing to me.

Compare those with the Heysham arms, below.

A number of families used "in chief three torteaux." The Wake, Harcourt, and Colville [a variant] families used, "or, two bars gules, in chief three torteaux.

The Devereux [Essex] family used similar arms, "argent, a fesse gules, in chief three torteaux.

The de Moels and Wake [a variant] families had argent two bars bules and in chief three torteaux.

The de Grey [Kent] family had barry of six argent and azure in chief three torteaux.

Could William Heysham have been claiming a relationship with one of these families? Again, I don't have any information that ties these families to the Heyshams.

Note that in modern usage there are many terms for roundlets, or circles, borne on shields specific to their tinctures. Besant, or bezant, from the Byzantine coin, is gold, besant d'or. Besant d'argent, is a Plate. Besant de gueules is a Torteaux [torteau]. Azure roundles are Hurts, Vert is Pomeis, Purpure is Golpes, and Sable are Pellets, Ogresses or Gunstones. However, none of these were exclusively of one tincture in ancient usage, and white torteaux and gold plates may be called out. Torteau is, literally, a little tart or cake and the figure was intended to represent the sacred host.

Recently I found the actual Grant of Arms to William Heysham which confirms my theories, above:

“To all and Singular to whom these Presents shall come John Anstis, Esq., Garter Principal King of Arms, and Sir John Vanburgh Kt., Claren, King of Arms send Greeting. Whereas those ancient Badges and Ensigns of Gentility commonly called or known by the name of Arms have hitherto and are still continued to be conferred upon Persons to distinguish them from the common sort of People who neither can nor may pretend to use them without lawful Authority. And whereas William Heysham of East Greenwich in the County of Kent, Esq., one of the Representatives in Parliament for the Borough of Lancaster, second son of William Heysham by Elizabeth his wife, daughter and one of the coheirs of Humphrey Brockden of the Island of Barbadoes and Grandson of Giles Heysham of Lancaster in the County Palatine of Lancaster, hath represented unto the Rt. Honble, Henry Earl of Berkshire Deputy with the Royal approbation to the most noble Thomas Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal and hereditary Marshal of England, That His Ancestors having for many generations lived in the Credit and Reputation of Gentlemen did bear a Coat of Arms as of Right belonging to their Name and Family, but being unable for want of due Entrye of their several descents in the College of Arms strictly to justify their Right to the same [this, I am sure, refers to the Gernet arms] and desiring an indisputable authority for the using thereof hath therefore prayed His Lordship’s Warrant for our devising and (after his Lordship’s Consent and approbation) granting and assigning unto him such Arms and Crest as may be lawfully borne by him and his descendants, and all other the descendants of his Grandfather Giles Heysham aforesaid. And forasmuch as his Lordship duly considering the request and also the Qualifications of the said William Heysham did by Warrant under His Hand and Seal bearing date the 29th day of January last Order and Direct us to devise (and after His Lordship’s Consent and approbation) Grant and Assign unto the said William Heysham and His descendants, and to all the other descendants of his said Grandfather such Arms and Crest accordingly. Now Know ye that We the said Garter and Clarenx. in pursuance of the Consent of the said Earl of Berkshire and by virtue of the Letters Patent of our offices to each of Us respectively granted under the Great Seal have, devised and do by these presents (with his Lordship’s approbation) Grant and Assign unto the said William Heysham the Arms and Crest hereafter mentioned vis Gules an Anchor in Pale Or, on a chief of the second three Torteauxes, and for a Crest on a wreath of the Colours a Mount proper and thereon a Buck in full course Argent Gutte de Sang attired and ungul’d Or and wounded through the Neck with an Arrow Gules feathered end, headed Gold as the same is in the Margin hereof more plainly depicted to be borne and used for ever hereafter by him the said William Heysham and his Descendants and by all the Descendants of his Grandfather Giles Heysham aforesaid with their due and respective differences according to the Usage and Practice of Arms without the Lett, or Interruption of any Person or Persons whatsoever. In Witness whereof We the said Garter and Claranceux Kings of Arms have to these presents subscribed our Names and affixed the Seals of Our respective Offices the third day of February in the Ninth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord. George by the Grace of God King ot Great Britain France and Ireland Defender of the Faith, etc. Annoq Dom'i 1723
Signed
John Anstis, Garter.
John Vanbrugh
Principal King Clarx.
King of Arms”
John Anstis was a reforming spirit and it was his emphasis on proofs that forced William Heysham to accept a new set of arms vice being allowed to use those of his purported ancestors, the Gernets.

In an entry in the American section, below, a Theodore Heysham of Norristown, Pennsylvania, a descendent of William Heysham of Philadelphia, is in possession of a painting of a Heysham coat-of-arms dating to “1500.” That date is in question, but it is the same as that described above, but has a motto, Meo Spesin Deo, freely translated, “My hope in God.” The motto carries on the anchor theme of “hope.” Below is an image of the crest from a genealogical index, apparently submitted by Theodore Heysham. Below that is my attempt at a version in the proper colors.



Note: A William Heysham, merchant of commerce [could this be William Heysham of New York, and later Philadelphia?], had a subscription in 1749 to the following Geneological text, showing the family’s continued interest in William’s acquistion of a coat of arms: London and Middlesex Illustrated: By a true and explicit Account of the Names, Residence, Genealogy, and Coat Armour of the Nobility, Principal Merchants, And other Eminent Families, Trading within The Precincts of this most opulent City and County: (The Eye of the Universe:) All Blazon'd in their proper Colours, With References thereunto; shewing In what Manuscript Books, or other original Records of the Herald's Office, the Right of each Person respectively may be found. Now first Published. By John Warburton, Esq. Somerset Herald, F.R.S., 1749, Warburton, John. London. Printed by C. and J. Ackers, in St. John's Street, For the Author; and Sold by R. Baldwin, Jun. at the Rose in Pater-Noster-Row.

There is another coat of arms for the family under the name of Heisham. Is was "a lion rampant, wielding in his dexter paw a battle-axe, all ppr. pl.4, n.5." - from "The Book of Family Crests" by John Peter Elven. Note that this was a variation on the Gernet arms. This book has Heysham as "a stag's head cabossed, (enfiled with a ducal coronet.) pl.39, n.31." Also see the sun-dial of James Heysham of Barrons Hill, Carlisle, Westmorland. It was topped with a crest of a rampant lion, again alluding to the Gernet connection.

William Heysham, of Greenwich, was listed as a subscriber to the following books & magazines which would be most suitable to a Member Of Parliament: - A Compleat History of the late War. In the Netherlands. Together with an abstract of the Treaty of Utrecht ... The whole illustrated with 15 ... copper plates (Vol. 1), 1713, BRODRICK, Thomas. London;
- The Works of the Right Honourable Joseph Addison. [Edited by Thomas Tickell. With a portrait engraved by G. Virtue after G. Kneller] (Vol. 1), 1721, ADDISON, Joseph. London;
- Vita Johannis Barwick, S.T.P. ... Adjicitur appendix epistolarum tam ab ipso rege Carolo II. quam a suo Cancellario exulantibus, aliarumq; chartarum ad eandem historiam pertinentium. [Edited by Hilkiah Bedford. With portraits], 1721, BARWICK, Peter. London;
- Batrachomyomachia Graece ad Veterum Exemplarium fidem Recusa; Glossa Graeca; Variantibus Lectionibus; Versionibus Latinis; Commentariis & Indicibus Illustrata, 1721, HOMER. London;
- A new general atlas ... of all the world, 1721, SENEX, John. London; Miscellanea Graecorum aliquot Scriptorum Carmina, cum versione Latina et notis, 1722, MAITTAIRE, Michael. London;
- The history of the antient abbeys, monasteries, hospitals, cathedrals and collegiate churches. Being two additional volumes to Sir W. Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum (Vol. 1), 1722, STEVENS, John. London;
- The Life of Cardinal Wolsey. With several copper plates, 1724, FIDDES, Richard. London;
- Vitruvius Britannicus, or the British Architect, containing the plans, elevations, sections of the regular buildings, both publick and private, in Great Britain, with variety of new designs (Vol. 3), 1725, CAMPBELL, Colin. London;
- Original and genuine letters sent to the Tatler and Spectator during the time those works were publishing, none of which have been before printed (Vol. 1), 1725, LILLIE, Charles. London;
- Anacreontis Opera Graece. Cum Latina versione, 1725, MAITTAIRE, Michael. London;
- The Odyssey of Homer (Vol. 1), 1725, POPE, Alexander. London;
- The Life of Sir Leoline Jenkins, Judge of the High-Court of Admiralty, And Prerogative Court of Canterbury, &c. Ambassador and Plenipotentiary for the General Peace at Cologn and Nimeguen, And Secretary of State to K. Charles II. And A Compleat Series of Letters, from the Beginning to the End of those Two Important Treaties. Wherein are related The most Remarkable Transactions of those Times, both Foreign and Domestick. Together with Many valuable Papers and Original Letters, relating to the Rights and Privileges of the Universities, and other weighty Subjects. And the Resolution of many difficult and curious Points in the Common and Civil Law, Laws of Merchants and of Nations, that arose within the Time of his Ministry. Never before Published. In Two Volumes., 1724, WYNNE, William of the Middle-Temple, Esq:, London. Printed for Joseph Downing, in Bartholomew-Close; William Taylor, at the Ship in Pater-noster-Row; William and John Innys, at the West-End of St. Paul's; and John Osborn, at the Oxford-Arms in Lombard-Street. A law book;

In 1725 William Heysham, Member of Parliament, bequeathed an estate producing £256 per annum [characterized as "among the most considerable charitable bequests"], in trust to the city of Lancaster, for the benefit of eight poor men resident within the borough. From: "A Topographical Dictionary of England," by Samuel Lewis, Vol.III, London, 1831, Page22.

On 7 December 1726 William was the plaintiff in a trial for forgery against William Rhodes held at the Old Bailey.

"William Rhodes of Billiter-Square London, Merchant, was indicted for Forging and Publishing certain Writings or Letters of Attorney; impowering him the said William Rhodes, to sell; assign, and dispose of South-Sea Stock, to the Value of about Eight Thousand Pounds, the Property of William Heysham of Greenwich, Esq; and that he the said William Rhodes, the Hand and Seal of the said William Heysham, Esq; did Forge and Counterfeit.

Mr. Marsh depos'd to this Effect, That Mr. Heysham being an infirm Man, and often afficted with the Gout, he intrusted the Prisoner to negotiate Affairs, and in the Year 1725, being then employed in the said Service, he (the Prisoner) wrote Mr. Heysham a very formal Letter, desiring Mr. Heysham to impower him to receive his Dividends of Stock; but soon after Mr. Heysham having some Business near the South-sea House, he desired me to go along with him, and like wife, that I would go and enquire at the South-Sea House, if the Prisoner had received his Dividends of Stock there; I went to the proper Office, and one of the Clerks told me Mr. Heysham had not any Stock in that Company - I went back to Mr. Heysham and inform'd him of it. He appeared extremely surprised, desired me to go back again, and he would go to the Prisoner, (who was then ill at home) and desired me to come to him there; I came to the Prisoner's accordingly, found Mr. Heysham ruffled, and talking very warmly to him. Who insisted, that as for his Stock being disposed of there was no such Thing done, and that it was a Mistake of the Clerk's - Upon which I told the Prisoner, that it was in vain to make any such Pretence, for I had made a proper Enquiry, and was very well assured that Mr. Heysham had no Stock in the South-Sea Company - When the Prisoner see me so positive, he said he had a General Letter of Attorney for transferring it; but upon Mr. Heysham denying he that ever gave him any such Authority, he desired Mr. Heysham to be easy, and confess'd that he had been under some Necessities that obliged him to dispose of it, but promised he would reinstate the said Stock to Mr. Heysham in a short Time. And for his further Satisfaction, the Prisoner takes Pen, Ink and Paper, and drew up and delivered me a promisory Note, to Transfer Four Thousand Pounds South-Sea Stock; which Note I have here to produce. Here is also an Account which the Prisoner sent Mr. Heysham, wherein he gives Mr. Heysham Credit for the Dividends of his South-Sea Stock, as if none was disposed of, the Prisoner having disposed of Part of it without his Privity or Knowledge long before. Some Time after this I made Application to the Office, to see by what Authority the said Stock was Transferred and they informed me, by several Powers of Attorney. which Powers I got leave to inspect.

Mr. John Hastings, belonging to the South-Sea-House, (to whose Care and Custody all such Powers are committed) being sworn, produced the several Letters of Attorney in Court, impowering the Prisoner to sell, assign, and dispose of the said South Sea Stock at sundry Times; according to the Date of the said Powers or Letters of Attorney, and to three of the said Powers on which the greatest Stress was laid to prove the Indictment.

Mr. Lance, a Notary Publick depos'd, That he saw the Prosecutor execute the same, either at his own House in Bloomsbury, or at Mr. Robert Heysham's in Billiter-Square: And a great many Gentlemen appearing, who gave Mr. Lance a very extraordinary Character, as being an honest punctual Man, and one that would not be prevailed upon to attest a Falshood upon any Consideration whatsoever. The Jury acquitted the Prisoner of the three Indictments: Whereupon the Prisoner desired of the Court that he might be tried upon the other four; which being granted, there was not only the same Evidence Mr. Lance, but Nicholas Bouncher, Mr. Robert Heysham's Barber's Apprentice, was Witness to one of the other Powers, Dated the 10th of May 1722, who depos'd; He see the same executed in Mr. Robert Heysham's Compting-House.

Giles Thornton [Robert Heysham Jr.'s cousin and eventual heir] and John Ellis depos'd, That Mr. Heysham was in Hertfordshire at the Time that some of the said Powers or Letters of Attorney were said to be executed: But Mr. Rhodes producing some Draughts of Mr. Heysham's, proved him to be in Town. Whereupon the Jury acquitted the Prisoner of all the Indictments."

"Lives Of The Most Remarkable Criminals Who have been Condemned and Executed for Murder, the Highway, Housebreaking, Street Robberies, Coining or other offences" by Arthur L. Hayward notes that Mr. Heysham was the prosecutor in this case and that it involved 6000 pounds worth of stock, vice 8000. Also of interest, this case provided a precedence that "if it shall appear that the person swearing shall gain any great and evident advantage by the event of the trial in which he swears, he shall not be admitted as a good witness against the prisoner . . . Mr. Heysham was not admitted to swear himself against the prisoner because in case of conviction six thousand pounds stock must have replaced to his account." - from "Key Writings on Subcultures, 1535-1727: Classics from the Underworld."

Note that William has the 'fashionable' disability of the gout, a type of arthritis or joint inflammation. It is caused by obesity, high alcohol intake, and eating foods like liver, kidneys, tripe, sweetbreads and tongue. His London home was in fashionable Bloomsbury. What was this really about? A forgery or sellers remorse? The depositions of William's witnesses come across as probable.

Bloomsbury

Bloomsbury is an area of central London, in the Borough of Camden, named after an early landowner, William de Blemund, who acquired the land in 1201. The area contains some of London's finest parks and buildings, including the large and orderly garden at Russell Square, the smaller one at Bedford Square, built between 1775-1783, the main buildings of the University of London and one of its colleges, University College London, and the British Museum. The British Library is located on the edge of Bloomsbury, on the north side of Euston Road. It also contains the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts and the School of Oriental and African Studies.

The area gives its name to the Bloomsbury Group of artists of the early 1900s. This loose collection of academics, writers, artists and critics came together in the belief that constant debate, mutual artistic congratulation and self-promotion were essential elements of cultural progress. They also indulged in multiple affairs and were regarded by many at the time as being unnecessarily risqué. Still, with luminaries such as Virginia Woolf, EM Forster and John Maynard Keynes amongst their ranks they are now regarded as a major cultural force. It also gave its name to the lesser-known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in 1765 by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford.

William Heysham, the son of William H., M.P. for Lancaster, died suddenly on 14 April 1727 according to Musgrave's Obituary.

"1727. In the 2d mo. this year, Wm Heysam, who was one of the Members of Parliament for Lancaster, died at Bath, who was an indolent man and of noe service; but he left an Estate at Greaves, the Rent to 8 Poor Freemen, to be named by the Mayor, Recorder, and three of the oldest Aldermen . . . " - from "Notitia Cestriensis: Or Historical Notices of the Diocese of Chester" by Francis Gastrell
His will: Kent Wills at the PCC 1721-1727, Heysham William 1727 June 14 Esq - from LDS Film 0091813. The will was signed on 22 April 1725 and proved on 8 June 1727.
"In the Name of God Amen.
I William Heysham of East Greenwich in the county of Kent Esq do make publish and Declare this my last Will and Testament in Writing in manner and forme following.
Imprimis [in the first place] I give and Devise all my Messuages Lands and Tenements called the Greaves Situate lying and being near Lancaster in the County of Palantine of Lancaster to the heir male of my body [however?] begotten or to be begotten To hold to him and his heirs forever But in Default of Such Issue Male of my Body living att the time of my Decease Or my wife being then [Enseinit, pregnant?] with such issue Male I give and Devise the said premises To Mrs. Mary Meller now living with me [!] To hold to her for and During the terme of her naturall live.
And from and after her Decease then I give and Devise the said Premises to the Corporation of Lancaster for ever In Trust and to the Intent that the Rents and Profits thereof shall be applyed to and for the equall ease and benefit of Eight poor men of and Inhabitting with the same Towne of Lancaster for their respective lives as the Mayor Recorder and three Senior Aldermen for the time being of the same Corporation shall first after such my Decease and the decease of the said Mrs. Mellor nominate and appoint and my further Will is that as often as any of such poor men as shall be soe and nominated and appointed shall Dye Then the Mayor Recorder and three Senior Aldermen for the time being of the same Corporation shall from time to time afterwards nominate and appoint such other poor man and poor men of and Inhabitting in the said Town of Lancaster to fill up and supply the vacancy and vacancyes of him and them soe Dying and soe from time to time as any poor man soe appointed as afterwards shall happen to Dye such vacancye to be applyed as aforesaid with all Convenient Expedition.
Item. It is my Desire that my body be Interred in the Church of St. Pauls Walden in the county of Hertford as near the grave of my deceased uncyle Robert Heysham Esq. as conveniently may be and that my funerall be with as little Expense as decency will admitt and I doe hereby Will and Direct that the sume of thirty pounds be paid into the hands of the Minister and Church Wardens of the said parish of St. Pauls Walden as an addition to the bequest of my said Deced uncle and by them Laid out in the Purchasing of Land to be appropriated for paying Weekly for ever for an additionall Quantity of bread to be distributed Weekly by the Church Wardens of the said Parish to the poor thereof.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my beloved wife the sume of three pounds for mourning and to My Wife's Mother Mrs. Sarah Perry twenty pounds for mourning and to Micajah Phillip [Perry] and Elizabeth the Brothers and Sisters of my said wife ten pounds apiece for mourning. To my Aunt Mrs. Hester Barker and her Daughter my Cosen Elizabeth and to her Son-in-Law Mr. Hall and my Cosen Jane his wife ten pounds apiece for mourning. To my Cousen Gyles and Robert Thornton ten pounds apiece for mourning to my friend Mr. John Marsh of Haberdashers hall [that is, of that guild] ten pounds for mourning and to Mr. Robert [Antrobus] of Eaton ten pounds for mourning.
Item. I give and bequeth unto each of my Servants that shall be living with me att the time of my decease five pounds for mourning.
Item. I give unto my Wife her sett of Dressing plate and the plate belonging to the Tea Table all other my plate and all her Jewells and other Ornaments of her person and all my wearing apparell and my Coach and horses and her padd [?] and their furniture.
Item. I give to my said ffriend Mr. John Marshall my books.
Item. I give and bequeth all my Estate whatsoever which I shall Dye seized of or Entitled unto To the first Son of my Body Lawfully begotten and the heirs of the body of Such first Son and for Default of such Issue to the second third fourth fifth and all other Sons of my body lawfully begotten severally and succesively one after another in order and Course as they shall be in Seniority of Age and Priorty of Birth and the Severall heirs of their and Respective Body's the eldest of such Sons and the heirs of his body to be preferred before the Younger of such Sons and the heirs of their Body's [this is kind of sad since he had no sons at all, much less such a passel].
Item. I give and bequeth unto each of my Younger Sons and to each and every of my Daughters that shall be living att my decease / in case I shall leave issue male behind me the sume of two thousand pounds / in case I shall not have advanced them with a like or a greater portion in my life time / the same to be paid to my said Younger Son or Son's att their respective age of one and twenty years and to my Daughter or Daughters att their respective age of one and twenty years or Day of Marriage which shall first happen as for their respective portion's the Interest thereof untill the same become payable to be applyed att their respective Maintenance and Education att the Discretion of my Executors herein after named and appointed.
Item. Whereas by Indentures of Agreement on my marriage with my said wife there is provided a sume of money to be Invested in a purchase of Land and premises for such uses as are therein mentioned [a pre-nup!] and where as it is thereby provided that in case there shall be no issue male of my said Marriage or any issue of such issue male living att the Decease of the Survivor of me and my said wife That the Trustrees therein named shall raise and pay the sume of Six Thousand pounds for the portion of the Eldest or only Daughter of such marriage and her children as therein is mentioned and Subject to the said sume soe to be raised To the use and behoofe [behalf] of me and my heirs for ever. My Will is and in case of my Decease without issue male as aforesaid I do hereby give and bequeth unto such only an Daughter the sume of Six thousand pounds to be to her paid att the age of one and twenty years of Day of marriage which shall first happen the same to be by her had and received in Lieu and full Satisfaction of the said sume of Six Thousand pounds so to be by her or her issue had and received by virtue of the said Marriage Settlement and I do hereby Direct that the Interest or produce of the said Sume of Six Thousand pounds shall be applyed for her maintenance and an advancement of her ffortune and in case of Such my Decease without Issue male as aforesaid leaving only one younger Daughter my Will is and I doe hereby give and bequeth unto such only an Younger Daughters the like sume of Six Thousand pounds to be to her paid att her age of one and twenty years or Day of Marriage which shall first happen and I doe hereby Direct that the Interest or produce of the said sume shall be applyed for her maintenance and advancement of her ffortune till the same shall become payable and in case of such my Decease without issue male aforesaid leaving two or more younger Daughters my Will is and I do hereby give and bequeth unto such younger Daughter the sume of Three Thousand pounds apiece to be respectively paid att their respective age of one and twenty years or day of Marriage which shall first happen the Interest or produce to be applyed respectively as aforesaid But in case of the decease of any such younger Daughter before her attainment of such age or Day of Marriage as aforesaid the respecitve bequest to such Younger Daughter to be void and in case of such my decease without issue male or any issue of such Issue male living att the time of my decease Then and in such Case and for want of such issue Male I doe hereby Subject all my freehold Estate in possession or reversion whatsoever the [pimes] herein before Devised to the Corporation of Lancaster excepted in aid of my personall Estate in case the same shall fall short to answere my Just Debts my funerall Expenses and the legacy's in and by this my Will by me given or bequethed.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my Godson William Hall Son of the said Mr. Hall and my Cousen Jane his Wife the sume of One hundred pounds and do direct that the receipt of his parent or guardian shall be a sufficient Discharge to my Executors for the same.
Item. I give unto Mr. John Green Surgeon in the Strand the sume of ffifty pounds.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my said Couzen Robert Thornton the sume of five hundred pounds.
Item. I give and bequeth unto my said ffriend John Marsh the sume of one thousand pounds over and besides what moneys may appear to be to him Due on account between him and me.
Item. I give and bequeth unto the Governor's of Christ's Hospital London for the use of the poor children there the sume of two hundred pounds and my Will is that the respective Legacyes Except those for mourning and Except the portions for my Children shall be paid att the Expiration of Six months after my decease.
Item. I give unto my said Cousen Robert Heysham my Gunn Doggs ffowling Speeres and ffishing Tackle.
Item. My Will is and I do hereby Direct that the clear yearly sume of twenty pounds be paid by Quarterly payments unto Capt. Hercules Howe during the terme of his naturall life but in case my Executors shall think this annuitye not proper Then my Will is and I hereby bequeth unto him the sume of one hundred pounds to be paid him in Lieu thereof.
Item. The rest and residue of my Estate in case I shall leave issue male as aforesaid living att the time of my decease I give and bequeth unto and among my Sons and Daughters share and share alike to be respectively paid them att their respective ages of one and twenty years or Day of marriage of my Daughters respectively shall first happen and in case of the Decease of any of them before such their Legacye shall become payable the same shall be divided between the Survivors or Survivor of them share and share alike But in case I shall leave noe issue Male as aforesaid but two Daughters then an in such case I give and bequeth all the rest and residue of my Estate both Real and personall whatsoever after my Debts funerall Expenses and Legacys shall be paid and Satisifyed unto my said Couzen Robert Heysham and the heirs male of his bodye and for want of such issue unto the heirs of my bodye and for want of such Issue unto the heirs of the bodye of my said Couzen Robert Heysham and for want of such Issue unto my Cosen Robert Thornton for and during the terme of his naturall life and from and after his decease unto the first Son of the bodye of the said Robert Thornton lawfully to be begotten and the heirs male of such first Son and for want of such issue to all every other the son and sons of the bodye of the said Robert Thornton lawfully to be begotten and the heirs male of their respective body and [] the Elder of such Son and the heirs male of his bodye to [] before the younger as they shall be in prioritye of birth And for want of such issue unto the said John Marsh his heirs and assignes for ever.
Item. Of this my Will I doe hereby nominate and appoint my said Cousen Robert Heysham the said John Marsh and my said Couzen Robert Thornton Executors and hereby revoking all former Wills by me made [] doe hereby Declare This to be my last Will and Testament in Witness whereof I have to this my Will contained in Six Sheets of paper [fret] together with my Seal set my hand and seal this two and twentyeth Day of April in the Eleventh year of the reigne of our Sovereign Lord King George over Great Brittaine et annoq [] 1725.

William Heysham [signed] Signed Sealed Published and Declared by William Heysham Esq. to be his last Will and Testament in the presence of sworn [] herein to Subsribe our names as witnesses thereof this 22th Day of April 1725

Robt. Haynes Tho: Roots Chris. Master
So, lacking heirs, and his wife being previously taken care of in their Marriage Agreement, everything went to his cousin, Robert Heysham Jr., and after him to another cousin, Robert Thornton [later Heysham]. Had Robert Thornton's heirs failed then to John Marsh, the haberdasher. What about Giles Thornton? Who was Mary Meller? A faithful servant or a mistress? William did not mention the children of his other Aunt, Anne Heysham Carter. That cousin, Margaret, had in 1714 married Foster Cunliffe.

On John Marsh, Haberdasher, note that William's brother-in-law was “Micajah Perry, of St. Mary le Bow, London, Haberdasher," so perhaps haberdasher meant not a hat-maker, but a hat-dealer.

In St. Mary's, Lancaster is a tablet dedicated to the family:

"Sacred to the memory of William Heysham, Esq., formerly M.P. for the Borough, obit 14th April, 1727. he gave an estate near this town called The Greaves to the Mayor, Recorder and the Senior Aldermen, in trust, to divide the rent annually among eight poor ancient men of this Borough. To commemorate the anme and munificence of the donor, this monument is erected by the trustees."
The actual will reads,
"Will of William Heysham, late of East Greenwich, co. Kent, esq., messuages and lands called the Greaves near Lancaster to heirs male, but in default of such issue, then to Mrs. Mary Mellor for life, then to the Corporation of Lancaster in trust that the rents and profits shall be applied to the benefit of eight poor men inhabiting within Lancaster." 22 April 1725, proved 3 February 1727/8. - from "Miscellaneous Records, Lancashire Record Office" UK Archives
Another monument, near the above, commemorates Giles Heysham, of Lancaster, who died 1787, aged 68 years, and also his son, John Heysham, M.D., of Carlisle, who died 1834, aged 81 years, members of the same eminent Lancaster family.

The Greaves

Now a popular residential area close to the Lancaster City Centre. The Greaves hotel, half a mile south of the town commemorates this estate.

His death had a political effect as well. Upon his death, before the end of the 1717 term, "the former City friends and followers of Robert Heysham [and of his brother and nephew] found themselves in the spring of 1727 free to follow the Heyshams' new "connection," Micajah Perry," William's brother-in-law.

William was interred at St. Paul’s Walden Church. On the floor of the chancel is the following:

Monumental Inscriptions: St. Paul's Walden Church
. . . an anchor, and on a chief three roundels [Heysham], impaling on a bend --- between two cottises Erm. three lions passant --- [Perry].
"Here lyeth the body of WILLIAM HEYSHAM, of Greenwich, Kent, Esq., who was member of parliament ten years last past for the corporation of Lancaster. He married Sarah, daughter of Richard Perry, of London, Esq., and died the 14th day of April, anno Domini 1727, in the 36th year of his age." - from "Hertfordshire 1731 to 1800: As Recorded in the Gentelman's Magazine" by Arthur Jones

William's wife, Sarah Perry, lived on for many years. Here is the record of her lease at the tony address of 5 Savile Row. This street was newly built at this time. The photo to the left is of the staircase of this address, 1733-6. Nice, huh?

"Savile Row: East Side
No. 5 Date of Building Agreement: 19 April 1733 Date of Lease: 29 September 1733 MLR reference: 1734/3/389 Term of Years: 62 from Lady Day 1733 Rent: 12 12 0 Frontage: 21' Lessee: Sarah Heysham" - from "Burlington Estate Lease Tables" in British History Online.
Today this is the address of Melrose House, a modern, nondiscript building. It sold recently for 51M pounds.




































Savile Row

"Savile Row was created with the development of the Burlington Estate in 1695 and, as with other area roads such as Cork St, the name has connections to Lord Burlington himself, in this case, that of Lady Dorothy Savile, his wife. Initially, The Row was occupied by military officers and their wives; William Pitt the Younger was an early resident. During the 1800s, the gentry became concerned with neat dress, and Beau Brummell, 1778–1840, epitomised the well-dressed man. He patronised the tailors congregated on the Burlington Estate, notably around Cork Street, and by 1803 some were occupying premises in Savile Row. In 1846, Henry Poole is credited as being the ‘Founder of Savile Row’ after opening a second entrance to his late father’s tailoring premises at No. 32 Savile Row, however there were tailors on the Row long before Poole’s but sadly none of those originals survive to this day."

Sarah had little to fear as a widow, even discounting William's remaining wealth. While her brother, Micajah Perry III, died in poverty after mismanaging the family firm, his sisters estates were untouched. Elizabeth Perry had brought a 10,000 pound fortune with her when she married and Sarah probably did the same. Sarah's mother, Sarah Richards, wife of Richard Perry IV, died in 1756 and left her all of the family plate, linen, furntiure and her "coach and chariot." The latter suggests a significant degree of comfort. - from "Perry of London" by Jacob M. Price.

When Sarah's brother, Philip Perry, died in 1762 he left her his entire estate, which included all of his mother's government annuity stock, money, bonds and bills plus "my estate or mortgate I have on Little Stanbridge in Essex together with the Mannor and quitrents thereunto belonging."

When Sarah died in 1763 she left 3000 pounds to her niece, Sarah Cade and the residue of her estate to her nephew, Philip Cade. - from "Perry of London" by Jacob M. Price.

Sarah Heysham, widow of Blackheath, Kent made out her will on 16 June 1762. It was proved on 17 October 1763. Blackheath is a village in London, just south of Greenwich Park.

"This is the Last Will and Testament of Mrs. Sarah Heysham of Blackheath in the County of Kent Widow.
First my Will and Desire is that I may be buried in Saint Catherine Cree Church Leadenhall Street London [above] and that the Expense of my funeral be left to the Discretion of my Executor and Executorix hereinafter named and
As concerning my Estate I give the same in manner following that is to say I give and bequeth to Mr. Salisbury Cade of Greenwich in the said County of Kent and to my Sister Elizabeth Cade Wife of the said Salisbury Cade the Sum of one hundred pounds a piece for Mourning.
Also I give and bequeth to Sarah Cade Daughter of the said Mr. Salisbury Cade by the said Elizabeth his Wife the Sum of three thousand pounds to be paid her within the Space of twelve Months next after my Decease.
Also I give and bequeth to all and every of my Servants who shall be in my Service at the time of my Decease (other than and except my Maid Servant Catherine Dickinson) the Sum of ten pounds a piece to be paid as soon as conveniently may be after my Decease.
Also I give and bequeth to my said Maid Servant Catherine Dickinson all my Cloaths and wearing Apparel Except my [Hwarth] and jewells And I further give and bequeth unto the said Catherine Dickinson (as a Recompence for her faithful Services) and her Assigns for and during the term of her natural Life one annuity or yearly Sum of thirty pounds of lawful Money of Great Britain free and clear of and from all parliamentary and other Taxes Charges Deductions and Reprizes whatsoever and my Will is and I do hereby order direct and declare that the same shall be issuing out of and from all my real Estate to be paid quarterly at or on the four most usual feasts or Days of payment in the year that is to say the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist Saint Michael the Archangel the Birth of our Lord Christ and the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary by even and equal portions and that the first payment thereof shall be made on such of the said feast Days as shall next happen after my Decease And my Will also is And I do hereby order direct and declare that in case the said annunity or yearly Sum of thirty pounds shall happen to be behind or unpaid in part or in all by the Space of twenty one Days next after any of the said feast Days whereon the same ought to be paid as aforesaid that then and so often and from time to time it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Catherine Dickinson and her Assigns into and upon my said real Estate or any part thereof to enter and distrain and the Distress and Distresses then and there found to take lead drive carry away and impound and in pound to defer and keep and the same to demean according to due course of Law until the said Annuity Rent or yearly Sum of thirty pounds and every part thereof as in arrear and unpaid and all Costs and Damages sustained by reason of the non payment thereof shall be fully satisfied and paid and I do hereby further Order direct and declare that in case the said Annuity Rent or yearly Sum of thirty pounds or any part thereof shall be behind or unpaid by the Space of forty Days next after any of the said feast Days whereon the same ought to be paid as aforesaid that then and in such Case although there shall have no been no legal Demand thereof it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Catherine Dickinson and her Assigns into and upon my said real Estate or any part or parcel thereof to enter and to receive the Rents Issues and profits thereof unto her and their own proper use and uses until thereby or therewith or otherwise she the said Catherine Dickinson shall be fully satisfied and paid the said annuity Rent or yearly Sum of thirty pounds or so much thereof as shall be then in arrear and that shall incur during such possession together with all costs Charges Damages and Expenses that she or they shall be put unto or sustain by reason of the non payment thereof contrary to the true Intent and meaning of this my last Will and Testament [do you think the maid was worried that she'd get paid and was exerting all of her influence on the old woman to insure that didn't happen?].
And I do hereby give devise and bequeth all my Lands Tenements Hereditainments and real Estate as were freehold as Copyhold and every part and parcel thereof and all my Estate Right Title and Interest Use and Trust of in and to the same and all the rest Residue and Remainder of my Moneys Securities for Money Goods Chattels and personal Estate whatsoever and wheresoever and of what Nature Kind or Quality soever which at the time of my Decease I shall be seized or posessed of or interested or entitled to and not by me otherwise already disposed of (after and subject to and chargeable with the payment of my just Debts and funeral Expenses and the said Annuity Rent or yearly Sum of thirty pounds and the Remedies herein before by me provided for enforcing the payment of the same and several other Legacys Sum and Sums of Money and Bequests herein before by me given and bequethed) unto my Nephew Philip Cade son of the said Mr. Salisbury Cade by the said Elizabeth his Wife and to the heirs Executors [Minors?] and Assigns of the said Philip Cade respectively To have hold perceive receive and take the same unto the said Philip Cade his heirs executors administrators and assigns respectively To the only proper use Benefit and Behoof of the said Philip Cade his heirs Executors Adminstrators and Assigns respectively for ever.
and I do hereby make constitute and appoint the said Mr. Salisbury Cade and the said Elizabeth his wife Executor and Executrix of this my last Will and Testament.
And Lastly hereby revoking all former and other Wills by me at any time heretofore made I do declare this to be my last Will and Testament.
In Witness whereof I the said Sarah Heysham have to this my last Will and Testament the whole being contained in this and the next preceding Sheet of paper be set my hand and seal to each Sheet thereof this sixteenth Day of June inthe year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixty two.

[signed] S. Heysham -- Signed Sealed published and declared by the said Sarah Heysham the Testator as and for her last Will and Testament in the presence of us who in her presence and at her Request and in the presence of each other subscribed our Names as Witnesses thereunto.

[signed] Francis Gregg Daniel Stone Tho. Manning

This Will was proved at London the seventeenth Day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixty three before the worshipful George Harris Doctor of Law and Surrogate of the Right Worshipful Sir Edward Simpson Kinght also Doctor of Laws Master Keeper or Commissary of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury lawfully constituted by the Oath of Elizabeth Cade Wife of Salisbury Cade the Sister of the Deceased and one of the Executors named in the said Will to whom Administration was granted of all and singular the Goods Chattels and Credits of the said Deceased having been first sworn duly to administer power reserved of making the life Grant to Salisbury Cade the other Executor named in the said Will he he shall apply for the same."
The Cade family were of Greenwich, Kent. Dr. Salisbury [or Salusbury] Cade (1660-1720) was a physician of St. Bartholomew's Hospital and governor of Bedlam, the mad house of London. He was a member of the Royal College of Physicians and Censor in 1716 and 1719. This Salisbury died in 1720. His son, the Salisbury Cade above (1696-1773), was a court official, the paymaster to the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners. He married Sarah's younger sister, Elizabeth Perry. Elizabeth died in 1787. Their son, Philip Cade (1744-1799), was the only male heir for the remains of the Perry fortune. He was remembered as a notable eccentric. He had a son, also named Salisbury (born 1767), who emigrated to Jamaica, perhaps following the sugar trade of his uncles. He died there without heirs.

(20) Elizabeth Heysham (1694)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4) (18) Gyles Hyshame (1635) (19) William Heesham (1667)

She was born on 15 November 1694 and christened on 25 November in Saint Michael, Barbados, Caribbean, "Elizabeth dau of Mr. Wm: & Elisabeth Heysham" - from "English Settlers in Barbados, 1637-1800." An Elizabeth was referred to as William's "second sister" who married Salisbury [Salusbury] Cade, esq., in 1733 - from "Notes and Queries." This was apparently Elizabeth Perry, his sister-in-law. Elizabeth's father had died in 1717 and left her an heiress of considerable means.

She died unmarried 20 February 1720. I have a sister of the M.P. for Lancaster, unnamed, who was listed as having died in February 1721 per Musgrave's Obituary. At St. Paul’s Walden Church, on the floor of the chancel is the following:

Monumental Inscriptions: St. Paul's Walden Church
"Here also lyeth the body of ELIZABETH HEYSHAM, daughter of William Heysham, Esq. of Greenwich, and member of parliament for Lancaster. She departed this life the 20th February, 1720 [1721 in the modern calendar], in the 26th year of her age." - from "Hertfordshire 1731 to 1800: As Recorded in the Gentelman's Magazine" by Arthur Jones
This was the church where Elizabeth's uncle, Robert, and his second wife were buried. The will of "Elizabeth Heysham, Spinster of Kensington, Middlesex" was signed on 13 January 1720 and proved on 5 June 1721.
"In the Name of God Amen
I Elizabeth Heysham of the parish of Kensington in the County of Middlesex Spinster calling to minde the frailty of Human Nature and the Expectation of a future Judgement after death and having also Mindfull to Sett in order my temporall concerns do make ordain direct and appoint this to be my last Will and Testament
Imprimis I give and bequeth to my Brother William Heysham Esq. two Thousand pounds in money and also my largest Gold Snuff Box my largest Bible and my whole Duty of [Qream?].
Item to my Uncle Robert Heysham Esq. I give and bequeth One Thousand pounds in money
Item I give and bequeth to my Aunt Jane Heysham One Thousand pounds in money and also my largest Diamond Earings and my Brother's picture Sett in Gold my best laced head Ruffles and handkerchiefs [this was probably Robert Heysham's second wife, Jane Thornton who did not die until 1722. Robert did not have a sister named Jane.]
Item I give and bequeth to my Aunt Hester Barker Eight Hundred pounds in Money and also my broad grounded laced head handkerchiefs and Ruffles I give and her [hifewist?] my Diamond Broach [?] my Crimson behost [?] Gown and Coat and my Black behost petticoat
Item I give and bequeth to my Cousen Robert Heysham Junr [Robert Heysham's son] two hundred pounds in money and also my little Gold Snuff Box
Item I give and bequeth to my Cousin Elizabeth Barker two hundred pounds in money my Silver Tea Kettle and Lamp and also I give her my [garderiff] gown and petticoat
Item I give and bequeth to my Cousen Jane Barker [Elizabeth's sister] Two hundred pounds in money my Silver Tea Pott and Lamp and four Silver Tea Spoons with the Strainer and longo and also I give her my blue damaske Gown and petticoat and my balentia [Paged] head Ruffles and handkerchiefs also I give and bequeth to my two cousins Barkers above named a little Box in my Buroe and all things therein contained for their equall Benefit
To my cousin John Thornton I give one hundred pounds
To my cousin Giles Thornton his Brother the life [Issue?] of One hundred pounds
Item I give and bequeth to my Cousin Robert Thornton their younger Brother one hundred pounds in Money
To my cousin William Robinson [Lytton] Esqr and to Elizabeth [Heysham, the only surviving child of Gyles Heysham of Barbados] his Wife twenty pounds each to buy them Mourning
Item I give and bequeth to my God Daughter Barbara Robinson my Diamond Necklace and my Small Diamond Ear Rings [the eldest daughter of William Robinson and Elizabeth Elizabeth]
Item I give to my Cousin Margarett Buller twenty pounds
Item I give to my cousin Richardo of Barbados fforty pounds
Item I give and bequeth to Mrs Sarah Downing of Red Lyon Square one hundred pounds in money and my Diamond Ring and one other Ring with hair in it [Red Lyon Square was in ST Andrew Holborn, London, south-east of Bloomsbury. "A pleasant square of good buildings"]
Item I give and bequeth to Mrs Mary Bradley of Greenwich One hundred pounds in Money and my ffine Indian Quill
Item I give to my Godson Thomas Munroe Junr of Greenwich twenty pounds
Item I give and beqeuth to my Uncle Robert Carter [husband of Ann Heysham] ten pounds to be under for Mourning and also the like Sume of ten pounds I give to my Cosin Cunliffe and Margarett his wife each for the Same purpose [Foster Cunliffe married Margaret Carter, Ann's daughter]
Item I give to my Cousin John Thornton and his Wife ten pounds each for Mourning.
Item I give to my Cousin Elianor Bryer ten pounds for Mourning with my China Gown and petticoat lined with Blue and the remaining part of the Same Callico
Item to Thomas Townsend her Brother I give ten pounds for Mourning
Item I give and bequeth to Mrs. Martha Gerrard thirty pounds and also my China Gown and Coat lined with green and the remaining part of the same Callico and also my Silver hand candlestick
Item I give my Common prayer Book with Silver Clasp to Mrs Martha Gerrard the younger
Item I give to Mrs. Bellamy my Spinnett and my Point Primer and Ruffles and to Mrs. Thompson I give my Italian ffarm [?]
To my Servant John Stansworth I give ten pounds and I give to Mrs Mary Miller five pounds
Item I give to Mrs Mary Roberts five pounds
Item I give to my Servant Mary Carrington ten pounds and all my linen and wearing apparrell and not otherwise hereby disposed
Item I do appoint that my Executor shall deliver to all my Relations Rings he being satisfied they are respectively related to me
Item I give to Mr Downing and his wife Rings and also a Ring to their Son and I give and order Rings to and for the respective persons under written . . . [a very long list]
And I do hereby revoke and make voyd all former Wills by me made and I do constitute and appoint my loving Uncle Robert Heysham Esq my only and Sole Executor [Robert was probably her guardian after her parents died] to perform and discharge this my last Will and put the Same in due Execution and my Will Intent and direction is that my said Executor shall reteyne in his hands out of my personall Estate the Sum of four hundred pounds to be received and taken out of the Surplus of such Esate not hereby by me disposed of which sum of four hundred pounds I do give direct and appoint for charitable use and purposes and to be disposed accordingly by my said Executor as he in his discretion Shall think fitt And all the rest and residue of my Goods Chattells Effects and personall Estate whatsoever I give and bequeth to my said Brother William Heysham to be by him had and received to and for his own proper use benefit and behoofe.
In witness whereof I have hereunto Sett my hand and Seal this thirteenth day of January In the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred and twenty
Elizabeth Heysham
Signed sealed and published by the above named Elizabeth Heysham to be and containe her last Will and Testament In the presense of us Ino: fex
Elizabeth Lesseur
Orlando Hamlyn"

Elizabeth's Friends

Orlando Hamlyn

The son of William Hamlyn and Gertrude Cary of Woolfardisworthy. Orlando was baptised on 3 or 17 August 1690. He married Mary Shearm [Shearin] the daughter of Edward Shearm on 20 October 1713 at St. James Clerkenwell, London. The couple had no surviving children. Orlando was an Attorney, belonging to the Middle Temple. He was admitted an Attorney of the Common Pleas on 24 November 1730 (before Mr Justice Fortescue Aland). He may have been a law clerk in 1720 when he served as witness.


(18) William Heisham (1637/8)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4)

"William Heisham f. Egidij [Giles] . . . 25 February 1638," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster. Did he die young? Nothing else is known of him. However, I do have a Doctor William Heysham who, in 1696, was recorded onboard the SERIOUS, a English Letter of Marque, or privateer.

19 May 1696 - "Commander: Robert Barrett.
Ship: Serious.
Burden: 200 tons.
Crew: 40.
Owner: Moses Francia.
Lieutenant: James Smith.
Master: Robert White.
Boatswain: Jeremy Pettitt.
Gunner: John Colman.
Carpenter: Richard Browne.
Doctor: William Heysham.
Cook: Thomas Williams.
Armament: 20 guns.
Folio: 85" - from High Court of Admiralty: Prize Court: Registers of Declarations for Letters of Marque, described as "Against France"
William would have been in his mid to late-fifties at this time. If we accept the novels of Patrick O'Brian, then a doctor onboard a naval vessel, not counting the superb Maturin of course, would have been a man down on his luck. In 1696 England, under King William III of Orange, was at war with France, under Louis XIV. This was an inconclusive conflict whose issues were to be resolved in the subsequent War of the Spanish Succession.

Moses Francia

The owner of the SERIOUS. He was a merchant and substantial wine importer who lived in London. A Portuguese Jew, he and his brother, Francis, had a tax assessment of L12.00 on property with a rental value of L60.00, and a tax assessment of L9.60 on stock valued at L800.00. He died in 1703.

I also have a William Haysham who was identified as a gentleman, as so many in this line of the family were, who, around 1700, lived in St. Mary's county, Maryland.

"A George Rigg appeared in a lawsuit with John Lomax in 1702. In the testimony it was set forth that George Rigg owed to John Lomax the sum of £50. It further stated that "Geo. Rig [sic] late of St. Mary's County, Chirgurion was attached to answer unto Jno. Lomax petitioner in Physick" of a plea of trespass upon the case. John Rigg (apparently intended for George) appears in the records. In case Riggs did not pay the debt, William Haysham, Gent. of St. Mary's County would be responsible for it" - Maryland Provincial Court Judgements, Liber WT#3, pages 435 & 753.
Maryland was famously a colony of English Catholics, founded under the patronage of Lord Baltimore. St. Mary's county is on a penisula in Chesapeake bay. To the south is the Potomac river and the Virginia colony.

I checked the LDS database for a Willliam Haysham, born between 1640 and 1680. The only response I can come up with was a William Haysom who was christened on 15 April 1655 at Saint Edmund's church, Exeter, Devon, England. His father was William Haysom. This family, as you'll see on the "Heyshams of Southwestern England" page, were craftsmen, not gentlemen.

On consideration, this may actually be William Heysham, merchant of Barbados, who had many contacts with the colony of South Carolina. This may have simply signified that he voyaged as far as Maryland.

(18) Ellen Heysham (1640)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4)

"Ellen fa. Aegidij [Giles] Heysha [long 'a'] . . . 27 November 1640," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster.

(18) Anne Heesham (1642)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) Gyles Highsame (1603/4)

"Anne Heesham daughter of Geyles . . . 28 March 1643," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster.

There was a "Heesom, Anne, of Lancaster, A[mounderness] . . . Admon, 1666" in "A List of the Lancashire Wills Proved Within the Archdeaconry of Richmond" by Henry Fishwick. Just below this citation was one for a Giles Heesom of Lancaster, dated 1664 which appears to match (17) Gyles Highsame.

(17) William Highsame (1605)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570)

"Willm Highsame f. Wm" was christened on 11 June 1605 in Saint Mary, Lancaster - from the Lancashire Parish Register Society. "Willm Highsam . . . 30 Januarie 1607," burials, St. Mary, Lancaster. Obviously if this was our William then Elizabeth was the child of an as yet unidentifed parents. There are no William's on this page that fit.

(18) Elizabeth Hysham (1633)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) William Highsame (c1570) (17) William Highsame (1605)

"Elizabethe Hysham fa. Gulielmi . . . 26 June 1633," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster - from "Baptisms" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690.

(16) John Highsame (c1570)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540)

John Highsame of Lancaster. At this same time William Highsame, progenitor of the Merchants of Lancaster line, was having his family as well.

Could this be our John? From Dr. Bridgeman's private ledger for the year ending December 1616:

"It. [Item] paid debt wch I owed to Mr. John Hessem ... 100 0 0" - from "History of the Church and Manor of Wigan in the County of Lancaster." Also in "Remains Historical and Literary, Connected with the Palatine Counties of Lancashire and Cheshire"
Wigan is 15 miles south of Preston.

"Johes Heisham . . . 24 May 1636" - from Burials in Lancashire Parish Registers in "Lancashire Parish Register Society." The same reference has a John Heysome who was buried on 19 February 1627. Either could be our man.

His children were,
(17) Anne Hyshame (c1599)
(17) Elline Heighshame (1599)
(17) Richard Heesham (c1599), perhaps
(17) Isbell Highame (1599)
(17) George Highsame (1604)
(17) Edward Highsa (1605)
. . . a pretty long gap here - a new wife? .. .

(17) Thomas Hisam (1610-twin), who died young
(17) Alexander Hisam (1610-twin), who died young
(17) William Heisham (1615), who died as a young man

(17) Anne Hyshame (c1599)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1570)

There are no baptismal records for Lancaster before 1599. Anne Hyshame married Thomas Halle on 11 December 1617 in Lancaster - from "Lancashire Parister Register Society."

Their children were,
(18) Jeffray Halle, on 7 November 1618
(18) Elizabeth Halle, on 13 April 1622
(18) Issabell Halle, on 13 May 1626
(18) John Halle, on 2 December 1627
(18) Mary Halle, who died quickly, being buried on 9 May 1629
(18) John Halle, on 1 September 1630
(18) Dorithy Halle, on 10 June 1632
(18) Alice Halle, on 22 March 1637

"Anne Halle vxor Thomae . . . 3 December 1637" and "Thomas Halle senex . . . 18 December 1661" - from Burial records of the Lancaster Parish Registers.

(17) Elline Heighshame (1599)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1570)

There are no baptismal records for Lancaster before 1599. "Edmund Tolminge & Elline Heighshame . . . 26 November 1616," married at St. Mary, Lancaster - from "Lancashire Parister Register Society." As Edmund Tolmin in the IGI. An Edmund Towlminge was born in about 1593 in Lancaster, the son of William and Elizabeth Towlminge. He died before 9 June 1664 in Harlocks, Boulton, Lancashire. Also as Tolinge and Toulmine.

I believe this is the Bolton-le-Sands family.

(17) Richard Heesham (c1599)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1570)

There is no record of his birth, perhaps because he was born before 1599. The records of his family are almost exclusively from parish registers and none left a will.

"Richard Heisham & Jane Atkinson" were married on 1 December 1637 in Saint Mary, Lancaster - from the Lancaster Parish Register of Marriages
"Richard Heesham of Lanc: . . . 20 July 1670," buried at St. Mary, Lancaster. Note that he had two children who used the surname Heysham.

His children were,
(18) John Heisham (1638)
(18) Robert Heysham (1640)
(18) Elizabeth Heysham (1642), died young
(18) William Heisam (1644/5), died young
(18) Elisabeth Heesham (1646), died young
(18) George Heesham (1651)

(18) John Heisham (1638)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575) (17) Richard Heesham (c1599)

"John Heisham f. Richi . . . 1 June 1638," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster. Perhaps he was named for his grandfather. John, the son of Richard Heysham, died and was buried at St Mary's church on 9 March 1716. He would have been 78 years old.

(18) Robert Heysham (1640)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575) (17) Richard Heesham (c1599)

"Robert Heysha [long 'a'] f. Rich . . . 4 October 1640," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster.

(18) Elizabeth Heysham (1642)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575) (17) Richard Heesham (c1599)

"Elizabeth fa: Richardi Heysham . . . 4 December 1642," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster. This is the first baptismal record I've seen using the Heysham spelling. She apparently died young.

(18) William Heisam (1644/5)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575) (17) Richard Heesham (c1599)

"Guliel: Heisam f. Richardi Heisam Lanc . . . 19 January 1644," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster - from "Lancashire Parish Register Society." "Will: Heison f. Rich: de Lanc: . . . 19 Aprill 1645," buried at St. Mary, Lancaster. I don't see any other Heison listings so I suspect this was Heisom.

(18) Elisabeth Heesham (1646)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575) (17) Richard Heesham (c1599)

"Elisabeth Heesham fa. Richard of Lanc: . . . 28 June 1646," baptized in Lancaster. "Elisabeth Heesham fa. Rich: of Lanc: . . . 6 November 1647," buried at St. Mary, Lancaster.

(18) George Heesham (1651)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575) (17) Richard Heesham (c1599)

"Geo: Heesham, f. Rich: of Lanc: . . . 23 Mar 1651," baptized at St. Mary, Lancaster - from Lancaster Parish Register of Baptisms.

(17) Isbell Highame (1599)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575)

Perhaps Highsame. "Isbell Highame fa. Jo: . . . 17 Desembre 1599" - from Baptisms in Lancashire Parish Registers in "Lancashire Parish Register Society." Issabell Hyshame married Christofer Richardson on 18 December 1619 in Saint Mary, Lancaster - from "Lancashire Parish Register." No children are known.

(17) George Highsame (1604)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575)

"George Highsame f. Jo: . . . 1 Maye 1604" - from Baptisms in Lancashire Parish Registers. "George Highsame . . . 19 July 1604" - from "Burials" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690.

(17) Edward Highsa (1605)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575)

I assume the following name is really Highsame: "Edward Highsa [long 'a' mark] f. Johne . . . 8 [9] June 1605" - from Baptisms in Lancashire Parish Registers in "Lancashire Parish Register Society." Two days later a son, William, was born to William Highsame, progenitor of the Merchants of Lancaster line.

(17) Thomas Hisam (1610-twin)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575)

"Tho: & Alex: Hisam, gemelli filij Johannis . . . 21 Aprill 1610." The son of John Hisam, he was christened on 21 April 1610 in Saint Mary, Lancaster. "Tho: Hysame . . . 23 April 1610" - from "Burials" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690.

(17) Alexander Hisam (1610-twin)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575)

"Tho: & Alex: Hisam, gemelli filij Johannis . . . 21 Aprill 1610." The son of John Hisam, he was christened on 21 April 1610 in Saint Mary, Lancaster. "Alex: Hysame . . . 25 April 1610" - from "Burials" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690.

(17) William Heisham (1615)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) John Highsame (c1575)

"Willm Hysham f. Johis . . . 3 December 1615," christened on 3 December 1615 in Saint Mary, Lancaster. "Willm Heisham f. Johis . . . 28 May 1636," buried per the Lancashire Parish Registers in "Lancashire Parish Register Society." I'm guessing this fits here because at the age of just 21 he was still viewed as the son of John, vice an adult.

(16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540)

His date of birth could be anywhere from 1560 to 1590. The earlier date making more sense of his probable age when he was the mayor of Lancaster, and his subsequent death in July 1633. The latter limits are more reasonable considering that "Galfridid Hyshame maioris" was having children from 1617 to 1629. Galfridi is latin for Geoffrey.

April 1610 "Churchwardens this yeare Jeffray Hyshame, Robt Whyte, John Jenkenson, John Jepsonn, John Longhten, Ric: Chatburne." - from "Miscellaneous Entries" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690. If this was our Geoffrey, then the earlier birth dates make more sense here as well.

"Margret vx Galfridi Hysham . . . 03 December 1615," from Burials in the Lancaster Parish Register. She was probably Geoffrey's first wife who died, perhaps in the birth of their first child. Geoffrey then remarried, circa 1616, to support the birth of the child Margritt, below, in 1617. This could explain the long period of no children when Geoffrey was younger.

The following is from a will of 1628.

"Abstract of the Inventorie of the goods etc. of John Shawe late of Anglezargh co. Lancs. gent.
Deced. made and prysed the 7th Januarie, 1628, by Robert Shawe, George Shawe, and Alexander Fielden gents., John Croston and Martin Thorton.
Mentions: In readie Money . . . 19 pounds, 8 shillings
Itm one lease for years of certen lands bought of one Geffrey Heysham in the name of Robert Shawe one of the Exors. etc. . . . 40 pounds" - from "The Records of a Lancashire Family" by R. Cunliffe Shaw

Galfridus de Heesham was the mayor of Lancaster in 1629 - from "Time-Honored Lancaster." As such, he must have been a man of some means, and perhaps a merchant like his nephew, Gyles, who would be mayor in 1656, 27 years or one generation later. It does make sense to see Geoffrey and William as brothers, both important merchants in the city. The mayor was selected from the Aldermen of the city, so in the years prior to 1629 Geoffrey must have made his way up through the governing hierarchy of the city: Junior Burgess, Burgess, Alderman, and finally Mayor. The men who governed the city were its leading citizens and were chosen from the professions and the merchant class.

Above, a wool merchant of Cirenchester. Not our Geoffrey Heysham, but typical in dress of a leading citizen of the trades/merchant class in the late 16th or early 17th century. Much of the wealth of northern England was found in the wool trade and the emerging textile industry, and many in the Heysham family would be drapers, like Robert Heysham of London, or textile merchants, like Thomas Heysham of New York city.

The Lancaster Parish records indicate that "Mr Jeffray Hyshame . . . 11 July 1633," buried at St. Mary Lancaster. That is, he was anywhere from 43 to 73 years old when he died. In "Time-Honored Lancaster" his death is noted as July 1633 and his name is rendered as Geoffrey Heysham. The following were the children of Geoffrey, who appear to have suffered a dismal infant mortality rate.
(17) Margret Hyshame (1617) , who died young
(17) Anne Hysham (1618-twin)
(17) Margrett Hysham (1618-twin)
(17) John Hishame (1620), who died in 1629
(17) Gylles Hyshame (1623) , who died young
(17) William Hyshame (1626)
(17) Gylles Hyshame (1629)

(17) Margret Hyshame (1617)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585)

I don't have a listing for Margret in the baptisms, implying that she died too soon for that. "Margret Hyshame fa. Galfridi . . . 06 September 1617" - from "Burials" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690.

(17) Anne Hysham (1618-twin)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585)

"Anne Hysham and Margrett Hysham gemelli filiae Galfridi . . . 14 November 1618." Anne Hysham, the daughter of Geoffrey Hysham, was christened on 14 November 1618 in Saint Mary, Lancaster. The Lancaster parish baptismal records note "Anne Hysham and Margrett Hysham gemelli filiae [twin daughters] Galfridi" were baptized on 14 November 1618.

(17) Margrett Hysham (1618-twin)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585)

"Anne Hysham and Margrett Hysham gemelli filiae Galfridi . . . 14 November 1618." Margrett Hysham, the daughter of Geoffrey Hysham, was christened on 14 November 1618 in Saint Mary, Lancaster.

(17) John Hishame (1620)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585)

"John Hishame f. Galfridi . . . 23 June 1620" - Baptisms at Saint Mary, Lancaster. "John Hyshame filius Galfridi maioris sepult" was buried on 27 May 1629, just before his 9th birthday - from "Burials" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690.

(17) Gylles Hyshame (1623)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585)

"Gylles Hyshame f. Galfridi . . . 25 November 1623," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster. "Gylles Hyshame f. Galfridi . . . 02 December 1623," buried in Saint Mary, Lancaster.

(17) William Hyshame (1626)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585)

"Willm Hyshame f. Galfridi . . . 26 February 1626," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster. I've seen a similar record for Willm. Hesham, the son of Galfridi, christened on 26 February 1625. The following may be our William, he is, in fact, the only member of the Lancashire family that fits.

In the second half of the 17th century Sir Edward Mosley, baronet, was the lord of the manor of Manchester. The following are from his court leet records.

7 October 1662. "Manchester cum membris
. . .
[Bylawmen] for the Deansgate St. Mary gate both Markett-Steads and Old Mealgate
Mr. Samuel Bowker
Mr. Robert Bagshawe
Mr. Robert Litchford
Mr. William Heysham
Richard Marsden" - from "The Court Leet Records of the Manor of Manchester, from the Year 1552 to the Year 1686, and from ..." by John Parsons Earwaker, Manchester (England). Court-leet, Manchester (England). Court-baron, Manchester (England). City Council
A bylawman enforced the "bylaws" enacted by the court-leet or court-baron, under the supervision of the Lord of the Manor. This could be a thankless task and many men tried to avoid their duties. A court records shows that two men were fined 6s. 8d. "for neglect of their office as bylawmen."
4 October 1664. "Manchester cum membris
. . .
[Bylawmen] for the Deansgate St. Mary gate both markett-stidds and oldmealgate
Johes Houlden gen
Johes Runagar
Wills Cooke senr
Wills Heysam [sic] &
Thomas Kaye" - from "The Court Leet Records of the Manor of Manchester, from the Year 1552 to the Year 1686, and from ..." by John Parsons Earwaker, Manchester (England). Court-leet, Manchester (England). Court-baron, Manchester (England). City Council
3 October 1665. "Manchester cum membris
. . .
Mysegatherors
Mathew Greaves
William Heysham - from "The Court Leet Records of the Manor of Manchester, from the Year 1552 to the Year 1686, and from ..." by John Parsons Earwaker, Manchester (England). Court-leet, Manchester (England). Court-baron, Manchester (England). City Council

Manorial Officers of Manchester

The general well-being and cleanliness of the town were seen to by the appointment, at every Michaelmas Court, of a large number of officers.
Borough Reeve - the chief officer of the town
Catchpole - the bailiff
Constables - they saw to the good order of the town
Myse layers - they set the local rates, or mize
Myse gatherers - they collected money for the town's use at a rate set by the myse layers, and delivered it to the borough reeve or constable
Market Lookers - individual officers were assigned for corn, fish and flesh, and for white meat
Ale founders - they tasted the ale, other tasters were assigned to bread and fruit
Leather sealers
Bylawmen - they saw to it that the bylaws of the town were obeyed
Skevingers - scavengers who saw to it that the streets were kept clean

Since the last Court Leet the lord of the manor, Sir Edward Mosley, baronet, had died. In the next entry, in Latin, William is listed as a member of the Court's jury.

2 May 1666. "Manchester Easter 1666
. . .
Jur P Dno Rege. [Jury of the Court Leet]
. . .
Willielmus Hesham gt [gent]" - from "The Court Leet Records of the Manor of Manchester, from the Year 1552 to the Year 1686, and from ..." by John Parsons Earwaker, Manchester (England). Court-leet, Manchester (England). Court-baron, Manchester (England). City Council

The following is from the "List of Inhabitants of Manchester in 1666" from the "Constables Accounts." The tax indicated was one assessed on 10 September 1666.

Cundith . . .
Mr William Heysham . . . 1. 0

(18) Thomas Heysam (1655)
(16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1590) (17) William Hyshame (1626)

This may fit here, "Tho: s. of William Heysam of Lanc: . . . 24 July 1655," - from "Burials" Lancaster - Parish Register, 1559-1690. My guess is that only a child would be identified in relationship to his father, like this. I'm not happy with this fit, but I don't have another William in the right time period to be the father. Note also that William does not show up in Manchester records until 1662.

(17) Gylles Hyshame (1629)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540) (16) Geoffrey Hysham (c1585)

"Gylles Hyshame f. Galfridi maioris [mayor] . . . 8 February 1629," baptized in Saint Mary, Lancaster.

(16) Matilda Hyshame (c1585)
(1) Ralph de Gernet (c1050) (2) Vivian Gernet of Halton (c1080) (3) Brian Gernet de Hesham (c1110) (4) Adam Gernet de Hesham (c1140) (5) Thomas Gernet de Hesham (c1180) (6) Robert de Hesham (c1200) (7) Adam de Hesham (c1230) (8) John de Hesham (c1270) (9) John de Hesham Jr. (c1300) (10) David de Hesham (c1320) (c1350) (12) William Hesam (c1400) (13) Nicholas Hesham (c1450) (14) William Heysham (c1520) (15) Gyles Highsame (c1540)

"Eliza Hyshame alias Johnson fa. Matildae Hysham & Jo: Johnson . . . 28 February 1618" - from Baptisms of the Lancaster Parish Register.

(17) Eliza Hyshame/Johnson (1618)

The bastard child of Matilida. "James Garnar & Elizabeth Johnson" were married on 6 February 1635.


Strays

In the period after 1700 the spelling Heysham became much more popular, and usual.

Ann Heysham (c1716)

Ann Heysham married Thos. Robinson on 11 February 1737 in Lancaster. I have an Ann Heysham, the daughter of William, who was christened on 11 October 1713 at St. Mary, Lancaster, but she married William Goad on 18 April 17334. There was also an Ann Heysham, daughter of Richard, who was christened on 10 April 1720 at St. Mary, Lancaster, but she died and was buried on 24 May 1721.

Elizabeth Heysham (c1707)

Eliz. Heysham married Oliver Mason on 22 August 1728 at St. Mary, Lancaster. I have an Elizabeth Heysham, daughter of Richard, born on 28 November 1708, but I think she married Jas. Overend on 1 February 1728.

Elizabeth Heysham (c1701)

Elizabeth Heysham married William Cocke on 21 April 1722 at Halton, Lancashire.

Elizabeth Heysham (c1767)

Elizabeth Heysham, spinster of Lancaster, married William Hoble, of Lancaster, on 9 August 1788 at St. Mary, Lancaster. Married by licence by J. Thomas, Curate.

Mary Heysham (c1780)

Mary Heysham married John Sanderson on 15 November 1801 in Sefton [or Formby], Lancashire. I believe Formby is nearer to Liverpool.

(20) Sarah Heysham (c1728)

I have no birth records for a Sarah in this time frame. Married in Liverpool, she could fit in to at least two lines. (18) John Heisham's sons, Edward and William, both had children who moved there.
- The children of (20) Richard Heysham (1703/4) were baptized at St. Nicholas, Liverpool in the early 1740's.
- Elizabeth, the daughter of (20) Christopher Heysham (1718), Richard's brother, was christened at St. Peter, Liverpool in 1740.
- Their sister, (20) Elizabeth Heysham (1730), married James Barrow at St. Nicholas, Liverpool in 1746.
- (20) Robert Heysham (1717), brother to the Heysham's of New York City, moved to Liverpool no later than 1766.
- Robert's brother, (20) Richard Heysham (1719), was identified as "of Liverpool" by 1734.
- Another brother, (20) Gyles Heysham (1722), operated out of Liverpool, though its not clear if he kept his family there.

Sarah Heysham married George Aspinwall on 11 March 1749 at St. Peter Church Street, Liverpool.

The earliest Aspinwall I find in the Liverpool area is Thomas Aspinwall of Toxteth Park, just south of the town. He was a watch-maker and died in 1624. Thomas' elder brother, Edward, had matriculated at Oxford, Brasenose College, in 1585. Their father was William Aspinwall of Aspinwall in Scarisbrick township. Edward left property in Scarisbrick and in other parts of Lancashire. Thomas' son was Samuel, also a watch-maker; Samuel's son was Josiah was a watch-maker who moved to St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London, died in 1679. Edward's son may have been William Aspinall, a watch-maker. A Thomas Aspinwall had a mortgage in Liverpool on 3 May 1752.

George Aspinwall of Liverpool had his will adminstered in 1679. Gilbert Aspinwall of Liverpool had his in 1702. John Aspinwall of Liverpool, merchant, had his in 1718. George Aspinwall had his will in 1729.

(??) William Heysham (c1780)

A William Heysham married Anne Wood in 1812 [1813] in the borough of Lancaster. She was born on 7 September 1795.

Here are some Strays that ought to fit somewhere below, but I haven't yet found the spot. The use of the given name Daniel makes me wonder if the Highfield family, the only branch of the family I know to have used it, may have had sons who returned to the sea.

(21) John Heysham of St. John (c1738)

His sons were baptized at St. John's church, Lancaster, not the usual St. Mary's. Note that Giles Heysham, the son of William Heysham and Dorothy Postelthwaite, had a daughter, Mary, who was baptized at St. John church as well. John's sons were,
(22) Daniel Heysham of St. John (1768)
(22) John Heysham of St. John (1773)

(22) Daniel Heysham of St. John (1768)
(21) John Heysham of St. John (c1738)

Daniel Heysham, the son of John, was baptized on 4 June 1768 at St. John church, Lancaster.

"16 January 1798. Daniel Heysham, 25 [1773], mariner of Lancaster and Jane Nelson, 25, spinster of Lancaster" married at St. Mary, Lancaster - from the Archdeaconry of Richmond Marriage Bonds in the Lancashire Record Office. As a mariner I would guess he was part of the John Heysham Line, but with the name Daniel the Highfield branch seems more appropriate.

Daniel Heysham, mariner, of Lancaster had his will probated on 13 March 1822 - from Probate Records in the Archdeaconry of Richmond.

(23) John Heysham (1799)
(21) John Heysham of St. John (c1738) (22) Daniel Heysham of St. John (1768)

John, the son of Daniel Heysham and Jane, was born on 30 May 1799 and baptized on 2 September 1799 at St. Mary, Lancaster.

(22) John Heysham of St. John (1773)
(21) John Heysham of St. John (c1738)

John, the son of Jno Heysham, was baptized 29 December 1773 at St. John, Lancaster.

St. John's

The church of St John the Evangelist, Lancaster, was begun in 1754, at a time of relative prosperity in the town. The port on the River Lune was thriving, and the church was required to meet the needs of the growing population. St. John's was built as a kind of overflow chapel, known as a chapel of ease. The church was from its beginnings associated with the Corporation of Lancaster and a pew was reserved for the Town Council, who attended afternnon service there after morning service at the Priory church of St. Mary. St John's church is located on Chapel street, north of the juncture of Church street and St Leonardsgate road, on what used to be the Green Ayre.

St. Anne's church, in Moor-lane, was built in 1796. St. Thomas' church, in Penny-street, was built in the 19th century. Christ church, on Lancaster moor, was built in 1857.


(21) John Heysham of St Mary (c1743)

(22) John Heysham of St Mary (1773)
(21) John Heysham of St Mary (c1743)

John, the son of John Heysham, was baptized on 7 December 1773 at St. Mary church, Lancaster.

John Heysam (c1670)

"Bond in £100, dated 18 Nov 1701, between Leonard Phillips and John Heysam, and the East India Company, obliging Leonard Phillips to serve as a seaman in the East Indiaman 'Tankervell' (Capt Charles Newnam, master) for 30 shillings per month for a voyage to and from the East Indies." - from the National Archives
Named for the Earl of Tankervell, or Tankerville.
Tankerville. 425 tons, 85 crew, 32 guns. Voyages: (1) 1699/1700 Bengal (New [East India] Company). Capt Charles Newnam. 15 Dec 1699-11 Sep 1701. (2) 1705/6 Madras and Bengal. Capt Charles Newnam. Isle of Wight 25 Mar 1706 - 10 Mar 1708 Downs. (3) 1708/9 Surat. Capt Charles Newnam. Plymouth 9 Apr 1709 - 5 Sep 1712 Downs.
So, what was John Heysam's role in this bond? Did Leonard Phillips take his place onboard the TANKERVILLE? Was he an agent for the company?

Joseph Heysham (c1708)

The father of Esther Heysham (1738), baptized on 22 October 1738 in Kirkby, Lancashie.



Steve Hissem
San Diego, California